CALL title banner
Handbook 11-16
February 2011

Annex A - National and Provincial Data

National Information1

Background

Ahmad Shah Durrani unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The Soviets withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahedeen rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hard-line Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, a U.S., allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama Bin Ladin. The U.N.-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid Karzai became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. Karzai was re-elected in November 2009 for a second term. Despite gains toward building a stable central government, a resurgent Taliban and continuing provincial instability - particularly in the south and the east - remain serious challenges for the Afghan government.

Government

The country is officially known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (locally: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan). It is an Islamic republic whose constitution was ratified 26 January 2004. The constitution provides for universal suffrage for those at least 18 years of age. The constitution also provides for three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial.

Executive Branch

The executive branch consists of a president, two vice presidents, and 25 ministers. The president and two vice presidents are elected by direct vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives 50 percent or more of the vote in the first round of voting, the two candidates with the most votes will participate in a second round. A president can only be elected for two terms. The ministers are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly.

Legislative Branch

The bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, one-third of members elected from provincial councils for four-year terms, one-third elected from local district councils for three-year terms, and one-third nominated by the president for five-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 249 seats) whose members are directly elected for five-year terms. On rare occasions the government may convene a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity. This Jirga has the power to amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president and is made up of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils.

Judicial Branch

The constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by the president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate high courts and appeals courts. There is also a minister of justice. The legal system is based on a mix of civil and shariah law. A separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged with investigating human rights abuses and war crimes. In addition, Afghanistan has not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction.

Flag Description



Graphic showing Afghanistan national flag

Figure A-1. Afghanistan national flag



The national flag consists of three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands. The center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side. Below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the United Kingdom). This central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right. In the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed), below are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great"), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan.

Geography



Graphic showing map of Afghanistan

Figure A-2. Map of Afghanistan



Afghanistan is a landlocked nation located in southern Asia, bordered by China to the east at the end of the Wakahn Corridor, Pakistan to the east and south, Iran to the west, and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north. The country covers an area of 652,230 square kilometers. Nearly half (49 percent) of the total land area lies above 2,000 meters2, with plains in the north and southwest. The Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country.

The country is divided into 34 provinces. The time is determined by adding 4 hours, 30 minutes to Coordinated Universal Time (ZULU or Greenwich Mean Time) or 9 hours, 30 minutes to U.S. Eastern Standard Time.




Demography and Population
(2010 Estimates Except as Noted)

Afghanistan has a total population of 29,121,286. Most of the population (76 percent) lives in rural districts, while 24 percent lives in urban areas. Around 51 percent of the population is male and 49 percent is female. Dari is spoken by 50 percent of the population. The second most frequent language is Pashto spoken by 35 percent of the population. The two languages are the official languages of the country. Other languages (over 30), primarily Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, and Pashai, are spoken by the rest of the population. The country is ethnically diverse with the following breakout: Pashtun, 42 percent; Tajik, 27 percent; Hazara, 9 percent; Uzbek, 9 percent; Aimak, 4 percent; Turkmen, 3 percent; Baloch, 2 percent; other, 4 percent. The vast majority of the nation is Muslim (Sunni, 80 percent; Shia, 19 percent). Afghanistan has a large (approximately 3,000,000) population of Kuchis (nomads), with at least 60 percent remaining fully nomadic.3



Infrastructure

About a third of the households use safe drinking water; 5 percent have safe toilet facilities (defined as an improved/flush latrine); and about 20 percent have access to electricity, with over half relying on public electricity.4 The transport infrastructure varies between provinces, with about 30 percent of all roads paved. There is a limited fixed-line telephone service, but an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks, with over eight million mobile-cellular devices in operation.



Economics

Afghanistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, largely because of the infusion of international assistance, the recovery of the agricultural sector, and service sector growth. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan is still highly dependent on foreign aid, agriculture, and trade with neighboring countries. The majority of commercial activity is related to growth and trade in agricultural and livestock products. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for over half of households in the country. In addition, about a quarter of the households derive their incomes from trade and services and around a third through non-farm-related labor.5 Primary products are wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, and sheepskins (karakul skins). In addition, there is small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement, hand-woven carpets, natural gas, coal, and copper. Most of these products are for domestic consumption.6 Afghanistan's primary trading partners are Pakistan and India.



Education7

The overall literacy rate in Afghanistan is 28.1 percent; however, while 43 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 13 percent of women.8 On average, 36 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled9 in the nearly 10,000 primary and secondary schools in the country. Boys account for 65 percent of students, and 28 percent of schools were boys' schools. There are almost 160,000 teachers working in schools in the country; 28 percent were women. Afghanistan has 22 public universities; seven private higher education facilities; 34 vocational, health, and technical institutes; and 46 teacher training institutes (eight are private).




Provincial Information10

Information follows on Afghanistan's 34 provinces, which are:

 

Badakhshanp1

Badghisp2

Baghlanp3

 

 

Balkhp4

Bamyanp5

Daykundip6

 

 

Farahp7

Faryabp8

Ghaznip9

 

 

Ghorp10

Helmandp11

Heratp12

 

 

Jawzjanp13

Kabulp14

Kandaharp15

 

 

Kapisap16

Khostp17

Kunarp18

 

 

Kunduzp19

Laghmanp20

Logarp21

 

 

Nangarharp22

Nimrozp23

Nuristanp24

 

 

Paktikap25

Paktyap26

Panjshirp27

 

 

Parwanp28

Samanganp29

Sari Pulp30

 

 

Takharp31

Uruzganp32

Wardakp33

 

 

Zabulp34

 

 

 





Badakhshan Province

Badakhshan is located in the northeastern region of the country between the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya. It is part of the Badakhshan region. Currently there is a German-led PRT in the provincial capitol, Feyzabad.

History

Badakhshan's name was given by the Sassanids and derives from the word badaxš (an official Sassanian title). Badakhshan and Panjshir were the only provinces that were not occupied by the Taliban during their drive to control the country. However, during the course of the wars, a non-Taliban Islamic emirate was established in Badakhshan, paralleling the Islamic Revolutionary State of Afghanistan in neighboring Nuristan. The province was about to fall to the Taliban when the American invasion allowed the Northern Alliance to reclaim control of the country with the aid of American military air power and assistance.

Geography



Map of Badakhshan Province



Badakhshan province is bordered by Takhar province in the west and Nuristan province in the south and shares international borders with Tajikistan in the north, China in the west, and Pakistan in the south. The province covers an area of 47,403 square kilometers. Nearly nine-tenths of the province (89.9 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 9.7 percent is made up of flat or semi-flat land. The province is divided into 28 districts.

Demography and Population

Badakhshan had a total population in 2008 of approximately 845,900. There are 134,137 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Almost all (96 percent) of the population lives in rural districts, while 4 percent live in urban areas. Dari is spoken by 77 percent of the population and 80 percent of the villages. The second most frequent language is Uzbeki, spoken by the majorities in villages representing 12 percent of the population. Other languages such as Pashtu, Turkmeni, and Nuristani are spoken by less than 1 percent of the population each. Badakhshan province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 9,417 individuals, or 0.4 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Badakhshan living in 34 communities. Nearly two-thirds of these (64 percent) are short-range, partially migratory, and the other one-third have settled in the province. In the winter, both groups stay mostly in one area and do not move around during the season. In the summer season, nearly 175,000 long-range migratory Kuchis come from Takhar, Kunduz, Baghlan, and Nuristan provinces to the Kistam, Tashkan, Taqab, and Arghanj Khawa districts of Badakhshan province as summer pasture areas. The Kuchi population in the summer is 185,452 individuals.

Infrastructure

On average, only 13 percent of households use safe drinking water; and only 1 percent of households in Badakhshan province have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. There is currently no information on the overall percentage of households having access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure is not well developed, with only 25.4 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. In 56.5 percent of the province there are no roads.

Economics

Badakhshan is an agricultural province. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in agricultural and livestock products. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 55 percent of households in the province. In addition, 32 percent of households derive their income from trade and services, and 29 percent earn income through non-farm-related labor. Unlike agricultural or animal products, there is not a very large production of industrial crops, with sesame, tobacco, sugar extracts, and cotton being the major products. The sector of small industries specializes in honey, dried sugar, karakul skin, confection and sugar candy, and silk. There is also a considerable amount of production of handicrafts in Badakhshan province, especially in rugs, pottery, and jewelry. Forty-six percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 65 percent have access to rain-fed lands. The most important field crops grown include wheat, barley, maize, rice, flax, melons, and watermelons. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, donkeys, sheep, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Badakhshan province is 31 percent; however, while 38 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 22 percent of women. On average, 46 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, a total of 263,360 students attended the 628 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 55 percent of students, and 20 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 9,540 teachers working in the schools; 28 percent were women. The province has a university and a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Badakhshan province had 48 health centers and two hospitals with 191 beds. Data from 2008 also showed that 75 doctors and 339 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health were working in the province. The province also has 120 privately owned pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Access to health care is difficult for many people in the province; 16 percent travel more than 5 kilometers to reach the nearest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Badghis Province

Badghis is located in northwestern Afghanistan, between the Murghab and Hari rivers, extending as far northward as the edge of the desert of Sarakhs. The province was carved out of portions of Herat province and Meymaneh province in 1964. The provincial capitol is Qala-i-Now. The PRT in Badghis province is led by Spain.

History

The name "Badghis" is from the Persian word Bādghezz, meaning "lap of wind" or "home of the winds." The province was one of the last captured by the Taliban in their military offensive before the American invasion in 2001. Even after their official takeover of the province, the largely Tajik population of the province never welcomed the Pashtun Taliban. The province was quickly retaken by Northern Alliance forces as the United States initiated hostilities, which was followed by a brutal cleansing of the Pashtun minority in the province.

Geography



Map of Badghisan Province



Badghis province is surrounded by Faryab province in the northeast, Ghor province in the southeast, Herat province in the west, and Turkmenistan in the north. The province covers an area of 20,068 square kilometers. More than two-thirds of the province (69 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 22 percent is made up of flat land. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Badghis had an estimated population of 441,900. There are 84,909 households in the province, and households, on average, have 5.5 members. Around 97 percent of the population lives in rural districts. The most frequently spoken languages are Dari, spoken by 56 percent of the population, and Pashto, spoken by 40 percent of the population, followed by Uzbeki, spoken by five out of 964 villages, Turkmani by four villages, and Balochi spoken by only one village. Badghis province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons.

In winter and summer, 115,100 individuals or 4.7 percent of the overall Kuchi population stay in Badghis living in 30 communities. All of these are short-range, partially migratory, and overall 94 percent of the community migrates. In the winter they stay mostly in one area and do not move around during the season. There are no long-range migratory Kuchi who use Badghis as their summer area, and none of the communities in Badghis named another area outside of the province as their preferred summer pasture.

Infrastructure

In Badghis province, on average, only 15 percent of households use safe drinking water; and 7 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities. In terms of meeting the basic requirements for energy, currently the Badghis province has two power stations: diesel generator power and a hydraulic waterpower network. The transport infrastructure in Badghis is not very well developed, with 33 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 37 percent of the province there are no roads. Telecommunications support is provided by the main mobile telephone operators Roshan and Afghan Telecom throughout parts of the province.

Economics

Badghis is both an agricultural and an industrial province, and it is rich with minerals such as gypsum, lime, construction stones, coal, and fuel. In terms of industry, one gin press (pressing cotton for packing) is working in the province. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in agricultural and livestock products. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 59 percent of households in the province, including 65 percent of rural households. Livestock also accounts for income for nearly half (45 percent) of rural households. However, 7 percent of all households in the province derive some income from trade and services. Around 5 percent of households earn income through non-farm-related labor. Unlike agricultural or animal products, there is not a very large production of industrial products in Badghis. Sesame and tobacco are produced in the province. Small industry is absent, and there is only a small production of handicrafts mostly related to rugs, carpets, and jewelry. Thirteen percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 94 percent have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, melons, watermelons, rapeseeds, and flax. The most commonly owned livestock are donkeys, cattle, goats, sheep, and poultry.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Badghis province is 11 percent; however, while 14 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 7 percent of women. On average, 19 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 362 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 74 percent of students, and 56 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 1,459 teachers working in the schools; 18 percent were women. There is a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Badghis province had 26 health centers and two hospitals with 120 beds. Data from 2008 also showed that 36 doctors and 247 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health were working in the province. The province also has 113 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present in their community. Only 11 percent of the population lives within 5 kilometers of a health unit.


Back to Provincal Information List



Baghlan Province

Baghlan is located in the northern region of the country. Its capitol is Puli Khumri. The lead nation of the local PRT is Hungary.

History

The name Baghlan is derived from Bagolango or "image-temple," inscribed on the temple of Surkh Kotal during the reign of the Kushan emperor, Kanishka, in the early second century A.D.

The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang traveled through Baghlan in the mid-seventh century A.D., and referred to it as the "kingdom of Fo-kia-lang." As a province, Baghlan was created out of the former Qataghan province in 1964.

Geography



Map of Baghlan Province



Baghlan province is surrounded by the following provinces: Bamyan and Samangan to the west, Parwan and Panjshir to the south, Takhar to the east, and Kunduz to the north. The province covers an area of 20,362 square kilometers. Nearly half of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and one-third of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 15 districts.

Demography and Population

Baghlan had a total population of approximately 804,000 in 2008. There are 95,109 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around 80 percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Baghlan province are Tajiks and Pashtuns, followed by Hazaras and Uzbeks. This includes major tribes such as Hussainkhil (Pashtun), Ahmadzai (Pashtun), Gadi (Pashtun), Aimaq (Tajik), and Arab (Tajik). Dari is spoken by 70 percent of the population and 73 percent of the villages. The second most frequent language is Pashtu, spoken by the majorities in 528 villages representing 22 percent of the population. Baghlan province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 97,500 individuals, or 4 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Baghlan living in six communities. In the summer season, some 820 long-range migratory Kuchi households come from Parwan and Kapisa provinces to the Khenjan and Doshi districts of Baghlan province. The Kuchi population in the summer is 59,776 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Baghlan province, on average, only 19 percent of households use safe drinking water; 15 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity; and only 2 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 42 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons and 32 percent able to take car traffic in some seasons. However, in a quarter of the province there are no roads. Communications support is provided by Roshan and Afghan Wireless Communication Company (AWCC), in the province.

Economics

Baghlan is both an agricultural and an industrial province, and it is rich with minerals such as gold, coal, and uranium. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in agricultural and livestock products. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 45 percent of households in Baghlan province, including 54 percent of rural households and 18 percent of households in the urban area. However, more than half of households in the urban area and one-quarter of households in rural areas derive their incomes from trade and services. Around a third of households in both urban and rural areas earn some income through non-farm-related labor. Industrial products such as sesame, tobacco, cotton, and sugar extracts are produced in the province. Small industry is absent in Baghlan, and there is there is only a small production of handicrafts mostly related to rugs and jewelry. On average, 62 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, whereas three-quarters of rural households and 14 percent of urban households have access to rain-fed lands. The most important field crops grown include wheat, barley, rice, maize, rapeseeds, and flax. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, donkeys, sheep, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Baghlan province is 21 percent; however, while 29 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 12 percent of women. On average, 29 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 405 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 62 percent of students, and 15 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 8,388 teachers working in the schools; 20 percent were women. Baghlan province also has a number of higher-education facilities. The province has a university, a teacher training institute, and an agricultural vocational high school for men.

Health

In 2008, Baghlan province had 39 health centers and three hospitals with 249 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 126 doctors and 325 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 156 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Access to health care is difficult for many people in the province; four out of five people having to travel more than 5 kilometers to reach the nearest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Balkh Province

Balkh is located in the northern region of the country, and its name derives from the ancient city of Balkh, near the modern town. A Swedish-led PRT is located in the capitol city of Mazar-e Sharif.

Geography



Map of Balkh Province



Balkh province borders Uzbekistan in the north, Tajikistan in the northeast, Kunduz province in the east, Samangan province in the southeast, Sari Pul province in the southwest, and Jawzjan province in the west. The province covers an area of 16,840 square kilometers. Almost half of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain (48.7 percent), and 50.2 percent is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 15 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Balkh had an approximate population of 1,144,800. There are 119,378 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around 66 percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Balkh province are Tajiks and Pashtuns, followed by Uzbek, Hazaras, Turkman, Arab, and Baluch. Dari is spoken by 50 percent of the population and 58 percent of the villages. The second most frequent language is Pashtu, spoken by the majorities in 266 villages representing 27 percent of the population, followed by Turkmani (11.9 percent) and Uzbeki (10.7 percent). Balkh province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 52,929 individuals, or 2.2 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Balkh living in 80 communities. Half of these are short-range, partially migratory; another third are long-range, partially migratory; and 18 percent are settled. In the summer season, some 120 long-range migratory Kuchi households come from Sar-i-Pul province to Balkh province. The Kuchi population in the summer is 59,776 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Balkh province, on average, only 31 percent of households use safe drinking water; 12 percent have access to safe toilet facilities; and 49 percent of households have access to electricity, with 41 percent relying on public electricity. Access to electricity is much greater in the urban area where 95 percent of households have access to electricity; however, this figure falls to just 26 percent in rural areas, and a little more than half of these (14 percent) have access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure in Balkh is reasonably well developed, with 38 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 27.5 percent of the province, there are no roads. Chimtal, Balkh, Dihdadi, Khulm, Char Bolak, Nahri Shahi, and Dawlatabad districts have mobile phone coverage.

Economics

Balkh is both an agricultural and an industrial province. In terms of industry, a fertilizer factory is working in the province. The majority of commercial activity in Balkh is related to agriculture and small businesses. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 42 percent of households in Balkh province, including 61 percent of rural households and 7 percent of households in the urban area. However, 58 percent in the urban areas and 21 percent in rural areas derive their income from trade and services. Thirty-five percent in urban and at least 25 percent in rural areas earn some income through non-farm-related labor. Balkh produces industrial crops such as cotton, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham. The sector of small industries is dominated by one commodity - karakul skin. In the area of handicrafts, rugs are the most prominent, and carpets, jewelry, and shawls are also produced. On average, 67 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, whereas 28 percent of rural households and 14 percent of urban households have access to rain-fed lands. The most important field crops grown in Balkh province include wheat, barley, maize, flax, melons, and watermelons. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, donkeys, poultry, sheep, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Balkh province is 44 percent; however, while more than 54 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 32 percent of women. On average, 58 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 378,294 students in the 465 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 59 percent of students, and 22 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 10,316 teachers working in schools; 50 percent were women. The province has a university, a chemical technology school, and an agricultural school for men.

Health

In 2008, Balkh province had 57 health centers and 11 hospitals with 880 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 335 doctors and 870 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 252 pharmacies. The majority of communities do have a health worker permanently present. However, 32 percent of men's shuras and 35 percent of women's shuras reported that there was no community health worker present, and both groups commonly said that a hospital was their closest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Bamyan Province

Bamyan, or Bamian, is located in the center of the country. Its capitol is also called Bamyan. A New Zealand-led PRT is located in its capitol.

History

In antiquity, central Afghanistan was strategically placed to thrive from the Silk Road caravans that crisscrossed the region trading between the Roman Empire, China, and central and south Asia. Bamyan was a stopping-off point for many travelers. It was here where elements of Greek, Persian, and Buddhist art were combined into a unique classical style known as Greco-Buddhist art. Bamyan was the site of an early Buddhist monastery from which Bamyan takes its name from the Sanskrit varmayana ("colored").

Geography



Map of Bamyan Province



Bamyan province lies on the highlands of Afghanistan and is bordered by the provinces of Sari Pul and Samangan in the north, Baghlan and Parwan in the east, Wardak and Ghazni in the south, Daykundi in the southwest, and Ghor in the west. The province covers an area of 17,414 square kilometers of mostly dry, mountainous terrain with a number of rivers, the largest being the Punjab. Nearly the whole entire province is mountainous or semi-mountainous, while only 1.8 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demography and Population

The total population in 2008 was approximately 398,000. There are 55,513 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around 80 percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Bamyan province are Hazara, followed by Tajik, Tatar, and Pashtun. Dari is spoken by 96 percent of the population and 98 percent of the villages. In another 24 villages with a population of approximately 5,000, the main language spoken is Pashtu. Bamyan province is only a summer area for Kuchi; no Kuchi stay there during winter. In the summer, 962 households of long-range migratory Kuchi come to Bamyan province from Nangarhar, 300 households from Logar, and 80 households from Balkh. Bamyan is one of the provinces where access to summer pastures is quite severely constrained. An additional 2,000 households from Logar, 970 from Nangarhar, 662 from Balkh, 517 from Khost, 370 from Samangan, and 50 from Saripul said that Bamyan province is their preferred summer area. The Kuchi population in the summer is 2,255 individuals.

Infrastructure

On average, 8 percent of households in Bamyan use safe drinking water; 6 percent of households have access to electricity, and there is no provision of public electricity. No one in the province have access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure in Bamyan is not well developed either, with 21 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. In 21 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, Roshan telecommunications company is operating in the province and Areeba mobile communications is planning to establish some antennas soon.

Economics

The majority of commercial activity in Bamyan is related to trade in agricultural and handicrafts. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 86 percent of households. The production of industrial commodities such as cotton, sugar, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham is restricted to a few villages. Small industries are also scarce with honey, silk, confection, Karakul skins, and dried sugar being their major products. Handicrafts, on the other hand, are produced in all districts with rugs, jewelry, and carpet the most common. The most important field crops grown in Bamyan province include wheat, barley, and potatoes. On average, 93 percent of households in rural areas in the province have access to irrigated land, and 58 percent have access to rain-fed land. The most common crops grown in garden plots include fruit and nut trees (80 percent) and vegetables (8 percent) such as potatoes.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Bamyan province is 29 percent; however, while 41 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 12 percent of women. On average, 39 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 104,095 students in the 294 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 62 percent of students, and 36 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 2,986 teachers working in the schools in 2008; 21 percent were women. There is one main university in the province.

Health

In 2008, Bamyan province had 35 health centers and four hospitals with 137 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 28 doctors and 285 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 22 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Access to health care is difficult for many people in the province; three out of four people having to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach the nearest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Daykundi Province

Daykundi (also spelled Daikondi, Daykondi, or Daikundy) falls into the traditionally ethnic Hazara region known as the Hazarajat. The province was established in 2004, when it was created from the isolated Hazara-dominated northern districts of Uruzgan province. Daykundi's capitol is Nili. There is no PRT in the province.

Geography



Map of Daykundi Province



Daykundi province is located in the Central Highlands region and is bordered by Ghazni province to the east, Uruzgan province to the south, Helmand province to the southwest, Ghor province ranging from the southwest to the north, and Bamyan province to the northeast. The province covers an area of 16,655 square kilometers. Most of the province (96.6 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and only 2.6 percent of the area is made up of flat or semi-flat land. The province is divided into nine districts.

Demography and Population

Total population in 2008 was approximately 410,300. There are 84,430 households in the province, and households, on average, have five members. Around 99 percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Daykundi are Hazara (86 percent), followed by Pashtun (8.5 percent), Baluchi (3.5 percent), and Sayeed (2 percent). Dari is spoken by 91 percent of the population and 85 percent of the villages. The second most frequent language is Pashtu, spoken by the majorities in 151 villages representing 13 percent of the population. Turkmani is spoken in two villages and Baluchi is spoken in one.

Infrastructure

In Daykundi province, on average, only 3 percent of households use safe drinking water; and 25 percent of households have access to electricity; however, there is no public provision electric power. There is currently no information on the overall percentage of households having access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure is not very well developed, with only 7 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 31.1 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, digital phone services are operating in Nili, Shahristan, Miramor, and Khedir districts. No information is currently available regarding mobile phone coverage in the province.

Economics

Daykundi is an agricultural province. The majority of commercial activity is related to almonds. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 71 percent of households, including 71 percent of rural households. However, 5 percent of households in both urban and rural areas derive their income from trade and services. Thirty percent of households in both urban and rural areas earn their incomes through non-farm-related labor. Unlike agricultural or animal products, there is not a very large production of industrial crops in Daykundi. Cotton, sugar extracts, sesame, and tobacco are produced in the province. Small industry seems almost absent in the province. There is a small production of handicrafts mostly related to rugs, carpets, and shawls. On average, 91 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 8 percent of rural and urban households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, and barley. The most commonly owned livestock are goats, cattle, sheep, and donkeys.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Daykundi province is 28 percent; however, while 38 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 18 percent of women. On average, 50 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 104,263 students in the 271 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 61 percent of students, and 15 percent of schools were boys' schools. Also that year there were 1,517 teachers working in the schools; 28 percent were women. The province has no higher education facilities.

Health

In 2008, Daykundi province had 22 health centers and two hospitals with 55 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 14 doctors and 82 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. The great majority of people seeking medical attention must travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Farah Province

Farah is located in the western part of the country. Its capitol is Farah. A U.S.-led PRT is located in the capitol.

History

Shahr-e Kohne, or Fereydoon Shahr, is located in Farah city. This old and ancient city is more than 3,000 years old. It was one of the ancient places of the Persian kings because Farah belonged historically to the Sistan Empire; that is the reason why it is also called Fereydoon Shar or Shahr-e Fereydoon (Fereydoon is a hero in the Persian book of Shahnameh). Following the 1992 collapse of the communist-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Farah province, like Herat, Nimroz, and Badghis provinces, came under the influence of Herat-based powerbroker Ismail Khan, who was able to stymie the Taliban until late 1995. Due to its isolation from the Taliban's area of focus, Farah exerted some small level of local control during Taliban rule. Following the coalition entry and union with the Northern Alliance following 11 September 2001, the Taliban withdrew from Farah due to the heavy coalition aerial campaign.

Geography



Map of Farah Province



Farah province is bordered by Helmand province in the east, Nimroz province in the south, Herat province in the north, Ghor province in the northeast, and Iran in the west. The province covers an area of 47,786 square kilometers. Almost half (46 percent) of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 49.9 percent is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 11 districts.

Demography and Population

Farah had a approximate population of 426,600 in 2008. There are 80,183 households in the province, and households, on average, have five members. Around 93 percent of the population lives in rural districts. Dari is spoken by 50 percent of the population and 544 of the 1,125 total villages in the province. The second most frequent language is Pashtu, spoken by 48 percent of the population and 566 villages. Farah province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 166,070 individuals, or 6.8 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Farah living in 34 communities. Almost three-quarters of these are long-range, partially migratory, while 15 percent are short-range, partially migratory and 12 percent settled. In the winter, both groups stay mostly in one area and do not move around during the season. In the summer season, short-range migratory Kuchis arrive in the districts of Shib Koh, Anar Dara and Gulistan. The Kuchi population in the summer is 44,080 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Farah province, on average, only 37 percent of households use safe drinking water; 7 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 9 percent of households have access to electricity, with 1 percent relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure in Farrah is reasonably well developed, with 49 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 16 percent of the province there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, Afghan Telecom, Roshan, and AWCC cover the province.

Economics

Farah is both an agricultural and an industrial province, and it is rich with minerals such as gypsum, lime, construction stones, gold, coal, and uranium. In terms of industry, 15 manufacturing firms are working in the province. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 50 percent of households, including 56 percent of rural households. However, 21 percent of all households in the province derive some income from trade and services. Around a quarter of households in both urban and rural areas earn income through non-farm-related labor. Unlike agricultural or animal products, there is not a very large production of industrial products in Farah, with cotton, tobacco, honey, and silk being the main products. Small industry is absent in the province, and there is there is only a small production of handicrafts mostly related to carpets, rugs, jewelry, and shawls. On average, 92 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 6 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat and barley. The most commonly owned livestock are goats, cattle, poultry, and sheep.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Farah province is 21 percent; however, while 27 percent of the men are literate, this is true for just 14 percent of women. On average, 32 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 83,803 students in the 253 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 70 percent of students, and 57 percent of schools were boys' schools. Also that year there were 2,090 teachers working in the schools; 22 percent were women. There is a teacher training institute and an agricultural vocational school for men.

Health

In 2008, Farah province had 16 health centers and two hospitals with 92 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 54 doctors and 220 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 42 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present in their community. Seventy-three percent of the people have to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Faryab Province

Faryab is located in the western part of the northern region of Afghanistan. Its capitol is Maymana, where a Norwegian-led PRT is located.

History

Faryab is a Persian word meaning "irrigated land." The modern province is named after a town that was founded by the Sassanids and later destroyed by the invading Mongols in 1220. Faryab province has been one of the more peaceful areas in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban after the U.S. invasion of 2001.

Geography



Map of Faryab Province



Faryab province is bordered by Turkmenistan in the west and north, Jawzjan and Sari Pul provinces in the east, Ghor province in the south, and Badghis province in the southwest. The province covers an area of 21,146 square kilometers. Approximately two-thirds of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain (63 percent), and 29.6 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 13 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Faryab had an approximate population of 884,400. There are 121,625 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around 89 percent of the population live in rural districts. The major ethnic groups are Uzbeks and Pashtuns, followed by Tajiks and Turkmens. Uzbeki is spoken by over half (53.5 percent) of the population and 49 percent of the villages. The second most frequent language is Dari, spoken by the majorities in 311 villages representing 27 percent of the population. Pashtu is spoken by 17 percent of the villages and 13 percent of the population. Faryab province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 98,220 individuals, or 4 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Faryab province living in 28 communities. In both winter and summer, the Kuchi mostly stay in one location and do not migrate anymore within the season. During the summer, some 230 households come to Faryab province from Balkh province. The Kuchi population in the summer is 101,460 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Faryab province, on average, only 23 percent of households use safe drinking water; 2 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 17 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 43 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 22 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, Roshan Mobile Company has signals along the main road through Faryab province and in the city of Maymana, with a 15 kilometers radius around the city.

Economics

Faryab is both an agricultural and an industrial province. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in carpets, dried fruits, and animal leather. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 53 percent of households, including 60 percent of rural households. However, 25 percent of all households in the province derive some income from trade and services. Almost a third (31 percent) of households in both urban and rural areas earns income through non-farm-related labor. Industrial commodities such as cotton, sesame, tobacco, and herbs occupy many villages in Faryab. For all practical purposes, the sector of small industries is nonexistent, with the exception of Karakul skin and silk. The sector of handicraft is dominated by rugs, carpets, jewelry, and shawls being produced in a reasonable number of villages. On average, 37 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land and 79 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in Faryab province include wheat, barley, maize, potatoes, and flax. The most commonly owned livestock are donkeys, sheep, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Faryab province is 27 percent; however, while 31 percent of the men are literate, this is true for just 22 percent of women. On average, 32 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 232,237 students in the 360 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 61 percent of students, and 40 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 5,600 teachers working in the schools; 25 percent were women. There is a higher education institute and an agricultural vocational school for men.

Health

In 2008, Faryab province had 37 health centers and three hospitals with 152 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 126 doctors and 292 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 62 pharmacies. Fifty-eight percent of the people have to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Ghazni Province

Ghazni is located in the central region of Afghanistan. Babur records in his Babur-Nama that Ghazni is also known as Zabulistan. Its capitol is Ghazni City. A U.S.-led PRT is located in its capitol.

History

Ghazni was a thriving Buddhist center before and during the seventh century A.D. Excavations have revealed religious artifacts of both Hindu and Buddhist traditions. In 683 A.D., Arab armies brought Islam to the area and attempted to conquer the capitol of Ghazni, but the local tribes fiercely resisted. The resistance was so famed that the Saffarids completely destroyed Ghazni in 869 when they ranged the region, conquering in the name of Islam. A substantial portion of the local population including Hindus and Buddhists, were converted to Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni. After the rebuilding of the city, it became the dazzling capitol of the Ghaznavid Empire from 994 to 1160, encompassing much of northern India, Persia, and Central Asia. The capitol was razed in 1151 by the Ghorid Alauddin. It again flourished, only to be permanently devastated in 1221 by Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies.

Geography



Map of Ghazni Province



Ghazni province is bordered by Paktya and Logar provinces in the northeast, Paktika in the southeast, Zabul in the southwest, Daikundy and Bamyan in the northwest, and Wardak in the north. The province covers an area of 23,378 square kilometers. Over half the province (59.8 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 35.7 percent is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 19 districts.

Demography and Population

Ghazni had an approximate population of 1,092,600 in 2008. There are 163,638 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around 11 percent of the population live in urban areas. The main tribes in the province are Andar, Tajik, Suleman Khail, Taraki, Kharoti, Niazi, Sulemanzi, Alikhail, Hazara, Daptani, Durani, Miya Khail, Bayat, Jalalzai, Khogiani, Musa Khail, Hotak, and Wardak. The most commonly spoken languages are Pashtu, which is spoken by about half of the population, and Dari, which is spoken by 47 percent of the population. In addition, Uzbeki is spoken by about 1,000 residents (0.1 percent), and about 23,000 people in 53 villages speak some other language. Ghazni province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, the Kuchi population in Ghazni is quite small, with just 31,230 individuals. In summer, this figure rises to 121,356, representing nearly 5 percent of the total Kuchi population. A total of 8,339 households currently migrate to Ghazni in the summer from provinces such as Kandahar, Nangarhar, Zabul, Uruzgan, Helmand, and Khost.

Infrastructure

On average, only 35 percent of households use safe drinking water; 1 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 37 percent of households have access to electricity, but only 2 percent are supplied with public electricity. The transport infrastructure in Ghazni is quite well developed, with 38.2 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 3.2 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, all the main mobile telephone operators - Roshan, AWCC, and Areeba - are present in the province.

Economics

Ghazni is both an agricultural and industrial province, and it is rich with minerals yet to be exploited. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 57 percent of households in Ghazni province. 18 percent of households earn their income by trade and services, 29 percent of households earn income through non-farm-related labor. In terms of industry, there is a salt factory and a chocolate factory working in the province. Industrial commodities such as cotton, sugar, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham are produced in the province. Fifty-five percent of the province is engaged in the production of handicrafts; the most common are rugs, jewelry, carpets, and shawls. Eighty-five percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 29 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in Ghazni province include wheat, barley, potatoes, alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, cattle, poultry, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Ghazni province is 35 percent; however, while 48 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 21 percent of women. On average, 39 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 257,372 students in the 509 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 68 percent of students, and 45 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 5,156 teachers working in the schools; 17 percent were women. There is a training institute and one university in Ghazni.

Health

In 2008, Ghazni province had 64 health centers and four hospitals with 220 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 139 doctors and 451 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 157 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. More than half the population travels more than 10 kilometers to get medical attention at health centers. However, given the nature of the terrain, it may take much more time and be much more difficult to reach health facilities.


Back to Provincal Information List



Ghor Province

Ghor, also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is located in central Afghanistan, towards the northwest. The capitol is Chaghcharan. The Lithuanians operate a PRT out of the capitol.

History

Remains of the oldest settlements discovered in Ghor by the Lithuanian archaeologists in 2007 and 2008 date back to 5,000 B.C. Ruins of a few castles and other defense fortifications were also discovered in the environs of Chaghcharan. A Buddhist monastery hand-carved in the bluff of the river Harirud existed in the first centuries during the prevalence of Buddhism. Ghor was converted to Islam in the early part of the 12th century after Mahmud of Ghazbu raided it and left teachers to instruct the Ghorids in the precepts of Islam. Ghor was the center of the Ghorid dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries. At its zenith, its empire stretched over a vast area that included the whole of modern Afghanistan, the eastern parts of Iran, and the northern section of the Indian subcontinent as far as Delhi. The remains of its capitol Firuzkuh, including the Minaret of Jam, a U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage site, are located in the province.

Geography



Map of Ghor Province



Ghor province is bordered by Heart, Badghis, and Faryab provinces in the northwest; Sari Pul and Bamyan provinces in the northeast; Daykundi province in the southeast; and Helmand and Nimroz provinces in the south. The province covers an area of 38,666 square kilometers. More than nine-tenths of the province (91.8 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 5.1 percent is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 10 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Ghor had an approximate population of 614,900. There are 111,741 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around 99 percent of the population lives in rural districts. Dari is spoken by 97 percent of the population. The second most frequent language is Pashtu, spoken by about 15,000. Ghor province is only a summer area for Kuchi, no Kuchi stay there during winter. For the long-range Kuchi; of Afghanistan, Ghor is the third most important province, after Kabul and Logar. In the summer, the Kuchi population is 166,640 individuals, with 63 percent being long-range, migratory Kuchi from Farah, Helmand, Herat, and Laghman.

Infrastructure

On average, only 14 percent of households in Ghor province use safe drinking water; 1 percent have access to safe toilet facilities; and 3 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure is not very well developed, with only 12 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 38 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, the telecommunication department is actively operating in the province, and Afghan Telecom and Roshan mobile networks cover the city of Chaghcharan. Around 10 percent of the population have access to phones in the province.

Economics

The majority of Ghor residents are involved in agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 56 percent of households. Forty percent of households in rural areas earn income through non-farm-related labor. Industrial crops include tobacco and sugar extracts. Small industries are very scarce in Ghor, and they produce a wide range of products. Handicrafts are considerably more widespread than industries. A majority of villages production produce rugs, carpets, shawls, and jewelry. Seventy-eight percent of households have access to irrigated land, and 68 percent have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in the province include wheat, potatoes, maize, and barley. The most commonly owned livestock are donkeys, goats, sheep, camels, and cattle.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Ghor province is 19 percent; however, while 28 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 8 percent of women. On average, 28 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 126,301 students in the 557 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 69 percent of students and 49 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 2,964 teachers working in the schools; 4 percent were women.

Health

In 2008, Ghor province had 30 health centers and two hospitals with 80 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 34 doctors and 121 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 115 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present in their community. Eighty-three percent of the people have to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Helmand Province

Helmand is located in the southwest region of the country. Its capitol is Lashkar Gah. A British-led PRT is headquartered in the capitol.

History

The Helmand valley region is mentioned as Haetumant, one of the early centers of the Zoroastrian faith, in pre-Islamic Persian times. However, owing to the preponderance of non-Zoroastrians (Hindus and Buddhists), the Helmand and Kabul regions were also known as "White India" in those days. Some scholars also believe the Helmand valley corresponds to the homeland for the Indo-Aryan migrations into India around 1500 B.C.

Geography



Map of Helmand Province



Helmand province is bordered by Paktya, Ghor, Daikundy, and Uruzgan provinces in the northeast; Kandahar province in the East; Nimroz province in the West; Farah province in the northwest;and Pakistan to the south. The Helmand River is the largest river running through the province - from Baghran district in the north of the province to the fishhook of the Helmand River running west into Nimroz province, then into Iran. The province covers an area of 61,829 square kilometers. More than a quarter of the province (28.9 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 61 percent is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 13 districts.

Demography and Population

Helmand province had an approximate population of 821,800 in 2008. There are 189,552 households in the province, and each household, on average, has nine members. Around 94 percent of the population of Helmand lives in rural districts; 51 percent of the population is male. The population is largely Pashtun, although there is a significant minority made up of Balochi tribes. Pashtu is spoken by 92 percent of the population. The second most frequent language is Dari, followed by Balochi. Helmand province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 95,325 individuals stay in Helmand. Seventeen percent are short-range, partially migratory (all belonging to the Baochi tribes) and 63 percent are long-range, partially migratory. In the summer season, the Pashtun tribes travel to Ghor, Ghazni, and Zabul provinces.

Infrastructure

In Helmand province, on average, only 28 percent of households use safe drinking water; 5 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 21 percent of households have access to electricity, with more than two-thirds of these having access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 62 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 5 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, both the main mobile telephone operators, Roshan and AWCC, are present in the province. The signal of these two mobile operators covers mainly the provincial capitol and Route 1 from Lashkar Gah to Khandahar City.

Economics

Helmand is mainly an agricultural province. There are two industrial crops grown in the province, cotton and tobacco. To a smaller extent, sesame and sugar extracts are also produced. The majority of commercial activity in Helmand is related to agriculture, animal husbandry, transport companies for import and export, and the production and trafficking of narcotics. Helmand is the world's largest opium-producing region, responsible for 42 percent of the world's total production.11 Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 69 percent of households in Helmand province. However, 26 percent of households in rural areas derive their income from trade and services, with 20 percent of all households earning some income through non-farm-related labor. Small industry is absent in Helmand, and there is only a small production of handicrafts mostly related to jewelry, rugs, and karakul skin. Ninety-seven percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 5 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, melons, and watermelons. The most commonly owned livestock are poultry, sheep, cattle, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Helmand province is 5 percent; however, while 8 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 1 percent of women. On average, only 6 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 128,049 students in the 279 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 88 percent of students, and about 90 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 1,702 teachers working in the schools; 20 percent were women. There is one university, an agriculture school, a mechanics school, and a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Helmand province had 42 health centers and three hospitals with 185 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 55 doctors and 121 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 115 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present in their community. Eighty-three percent of the people have to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Herat Province

Herat is in the northwestern region of the country. Its primary city and administrative capitol is also named Herat. Italy leads the PRT within the province.

Geography



Map of Herat Province



Herat province borders with Iran and Turkmenistan. It has internal borders with Badghis province in the north, Ghor province in the east, and Farah province in the south. The province covers an area of 63,097 square kilometers. More than one-third (39 percent) of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 53 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 16 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Herat had an approximate population of 1,642,700. There are 226,650 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around three-quarters (77 percent) of the population live in rural districts; 50 percent of the population is male. Dari and Pashtu are spoken by 98 percent of the population, with Turkmeni and Uzbeki spoken by the rest. The province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 98,506 individuals stay in Herat, 75 percent of these being short-range, partially migratory, 12 percent are long-range, partially migratory; and 13 percent are settled. The Kuchi population in the summer is 112,311 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Herat province, on average, 31 percent of households use safe drinking water; 14 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 22 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with more than 56 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 9 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as communications are concerned, the telecommunication department and private companies such as Roshan, AWCC, Areeba, Connection, and Afghan Telecom are active in the province. All the districts' centers have access to digital phones, and over 70 percent of the population have access to phones in the province.

Economics

Herat is an agricultural and industrial province. Salt, marble, gypsum, coal, cement, and construction stones are produced there. Agriculture is the major source of revenue for 36 percent of households in the province, including 5 percent of households in the urban area. Twenty-one percent of households derive their income from trade and services. Forty-six percent of households earn some income through non-farm-related labor. The major industrial crops are cotton, tobacco, and sesame. Together, these three products account for 86 percent of the industrial commodities produced in the province. The sector of small industries is not particularly well developed; silk, confection, and sugar candy are the chief products. In the area of handicrafts, carpets and rugs are the most prominent. On average, 67 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 42 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops include wheat, barley, maize, and rice. The most commonly owned livestock are goats, sheep, and donkeys.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Herat province is 36 percent; however, while 43 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 28 percent of women. On average, 55 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 575,263 students in the 641 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 55 percent of students; and 19 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 11,039 teachers working in the schools; 41 percent were women. Herat province also has a number of higher education facilities, to include a university, an agricultural school, and a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Herat province had 61 health centers and five hospitals with 699 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 279 doctors and 559 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 522 pharmacies. Half of the communities do not have a health worker permanently present in their community. More than half the households must travel more than 10 kilometers to access a health care facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Jawzjan Province

Jawzjan, also spelled Jowzjan or Jozjan, is located in the northern region of the country. Its capitol is Sheberghan. Turkey has a PRT operating in the province.

Geography



Map of Jawzjan Province



Jawzjan province borders Turkmenistan in the north, Balkh province in the east, Sari Pul province in the south, and Faryab province in the west. The province covers an area of 10,326 square kilometers. More than one-quarter (29.4 percent) of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 68.9 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 11 districts.

Demography and Population

Jawzjan had an approximate population of 476,700 in 2008. There are 50,900 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around 80 percent of the population lives in rural districts; around 50 percent of the population is male. The major ethnic groups are Uzbek and Turkmen, followed by Tajik, Pashtun, and Arab. Uzbek is spoken by the largest proportion of population (39.5 percent). Turkmen is second with 28.7 percent of the population. Pashtu and Dari are spoken respectively by 17.2 percent and 12.1 percent of the total population. Jawzjan province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 76,850 individuals stay in Jawzjan. In the summer, the number increases to 81,480 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Jawzjan province, on average, only 24 percent of households use safe drinking water; 15 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 42 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 45 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 12.1 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, both Roshan and AWCC are present only in the provincial capitol.

Economics

Jawzjan is an agricultural province that is rich with natural resources such as oil and gas. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 48 percent of households in Jawzjan province, including 8 percent of households in the urban area. However, 37 percent derive some income from trade and services. In addition, 37 percent of households earn income through non-farm-related labor. Industrial commodities such as cotton, sugar, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham appear to occupy a relatively substantial number of villages. Small industries are scarce in Jawzjan, with karakul skin and silk as the products. Carpets, rugs, jewelry, and shawls are the common handicrafts of the province. On average, 74 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 30 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in Jawzjan province include wheat, barley, melons, watermelons, and maize. The most commonly owned livestock are donkeys, goats, sheep, and cattle.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Jawzjan province is 31 percent; however, while 40 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 21 percent of women. On average, 40 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 127,739 students in the 243 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 51 percent of students, and 32 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 2,905 teachers working in the schools; 37 percent were women. Within the province there is one university, two vocational schools, and a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Herat province had 230 health centers and five hospitals with 2,640 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 279 doctors and 559 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 98 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Approximately 43 percent of the population must travel more than 10 kilometers to access a health care facility.


Back to Provincal Information List



Kabul Province

Kabul, or Kabol, is located in the eastern region of the country. The capitol of the province is Kabul City, which is also Afghanistan's capitol. There is not a PRT located in this province.

History

Kabul's history dates back more than 3,000 years. It was once the center of Zoroastrianism and subsequently also a home for Buddhists and Hindus. The Arabs conquered the area in the seventh century but the area was slowly taken back by the Hindu Shahi of Kabul. It was then conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1002, when the Hindu Shahi king committed suicide. For much of its time, Kabul was independent until it became part of the Durrani Empire in the 1700s. During the First Anglo-Afghan War in 1839, the British army took over Kabul. This was followed by multiple occupations by the British throughout the 19th century.

Geography



Map of Kabul Province



Kabul province is bordered by the provinces of Parwan in the northwest, Kapisa in the northeast, Laghman in the east, Nangarhar in the southeast, Logar in the south, and Wardak in the southwest. The province covers an area of 4,585 square kilometers. More than half of the province (56.3 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 37.7 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 14 districts plus the provincial capitol city of Kabul.

Demography and Population

Total population was approximately 3,449,800 in 2008. There are an estimated 78,593 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around 81 percent of the population lives in urban areas. Pashtu is spoken by around 60 percent of the population, and Dari is spoken by around 40 percent. A small number of people located in five villages speak Pashaie. Kabul province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 49,754 individuals, or 2.1 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Kabul. Of those Kuchi that live in Kabul in winter, 47 percent are short-range migratory, 16 percent are long-range migratory, and 37 percent are settled. The population of Kuchi in the summer is 220,251, which represents 9.1 percent of the total Kuchi population.

Infrastructure

On average, 65 percent of households use safe drinking water; 25 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 61 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. Access to drinking water and electricity is greater in the urban areas. The transport infrastructure in Kabul is reasonably well developed, with around 68.1 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 5.4 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, all districts in the province except Musahi and Khaki Jabbar are covered by both the AWCC and Roshan networks.

Economics

Kabul is a center for trade and commerce, particularly in the urban center, as well as an agricultural province with production concentrated in the rural districts. More than half of all households (53 percent) in the province derive their income from trade and services, 27 percent earn some income through non-farm-related labor, and 11 percent having agriculture as a major source of revenue. The production of industrial commodities appears to be concentrated in specific districts; main products are cotton, sugar extracts, tobacco, olives, silk, and karakul skins. Handicrafts are common throughout the province, with carpets, jewelry, pelisse, pottery, and shawls the most common produced. Fifty-one percent of households in both rural and urban areas in the province have access to irrigated land, and 3 percent have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in Kabul province include wheat, maize, and barley. The most commonly owned livestock are poultry, cattle, sheep, and donkeys.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Kabul province is 58 percent; however, while 66 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 48 percent of women. On average, 46 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 848,602 students in the 449 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys account for 60 percent of students, and 26 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 27,923 teachers working in the schools; 64 percent were women. There are four universities and nine vocational schools in the province.

Health

In 2008, Kabul province had 96 health centers and 26 hospitals with 3,560 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 1,519 doctors and 3,087 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 3,083 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. A little more than half of the population has to travel less than 5 kilometers and more than one-fifth of population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Kandahar Province

Kandahar, or Qandahar, is one of the largest of the 34 provinces and is located in southern Afghanistan. Its capitol is the city of Kandahar, which is located on the Arghandab River. The Canadians have a PRT in the capitol city.

History

Kandahar, the city and province, dates back to 3120 B.C. The city has been a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Asia, which connects Southern, Central, and Southwest Asia. It was part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire before the Greek invasion in 330 B.C. It came under the influence of the Indian emperor Ashoka, who erected a pillar there with a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic. Under the Abbasids, and later Turkic invaders, Kandahar converted to Islam. Kandahar would go on to be conquered by the Arabs in the seventh century, Turkic Ghaznavids in the 10th century, and Genghis Khan in the 13th century. Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of Afghanistan, gained control of the city and province in 1747 and made it the capitol of his new Afghan Kingdom. In the 1770s, the capitol was transferred to Kabul. British-Indian forces occupied the province during the First and Second Anglo-Afghan Wars from 1832 to 1842, and from 1878 to 1880. It remained peaceful for about 100 years until the late 1970s. During the Soviet occupation of 1979 to 1989, Kandahar province witnessed many fights between Soviet and local Mujahedeen rebels. At the end of 1994, the Taliban emerged from the area and set out to conquer the rest of the country.

Geography



Map of Kandahar Province



Kandahar province has borders with Zabul province in the east, Uruzgan province in the north, Helmand province in the west, and an international border with Pakistan in the south. The province covers an area of 47,676 square kilometers. More than four-fifths of the area is made up of flat land (84.5 percent), and 7.6 percent of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain. The province is divided into 16 official and two unofficial districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Kandahar had an approximate population of 1,057,500. There are approximately 14,445 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around 68 percent of the population of Kandahar lives in rural districts; 51 percent of the population is male. The major ethnic group living in the province is Pashtun. This includes major tribes such as Barakzai, Popalzai, Alkozai, Noorzai, and Alezai. Pashtu is spoken by more than 98 percent of the population. Balochi and Dari are spoken by a small portion of the population. Kandahar province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 79,949 individuals stay in Kandahar, while in the summer the population decreases to 39,082 individuals. Only 1 percent of the population are short-range, partially migratory; 51 percent are long-range, partially migratory; and the rest are settled.

Infrastructure

In Kandahar province, on average, only 64 percent of households use safe drinking water; 22 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 27 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure in Kandahar is well developed, with 76.8 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in a very small area of the province (3.3 percent), there are no roads. As far as telecommunication is concerned, the three main mobile networks - AWCC, Roshan, and Areeba - are accessible in Kandahar City and on main roads.

Economics

Kandahar is both an agricultural and industrial province. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade and services, agricultural, and livestock products. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 28 percent of households, including 8 percent of households in the urban area. Twenty-nine percent of households derive some income from trade and services, and 34 percent of households earn income through non-farm-related labor. The major industrial crops grown in Kandahar are tobacco, cotton, and sugar extracts. The sector of small industries is almost absent in the province; honey, karakul, and sugar candy are the primary products. Handicrafts, jewelry, and rugs are not a well-developed sector either. On average, 46 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 17 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, potatoes, melons, watermelons, maize, and opium. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, goats, donkeys, camels, and cattle.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Kandahar province is 16 percent; however, while 26 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 5 percent of women. On average, 23 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 150,582 students in the 340 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 83 percent of students, and 81 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 2,931 teachers working in the schools; 12 percent were women. The province has a university and teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Kandahar province had 32 health centers and two hospitals with 391 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 102 doctors and 300 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 94 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. A little more than half of the population (51 percent) has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Kapisa Province

Kapisa is located in the eastern region of the country. Its capitol is Mahmud-i-Raqi. A U.S.-led PRT administers the stabilization and reconstruction effort and is located at Bagram Air Base in Parwan province.

History

The earliest references to Kapisa appear in the writings of fifth century B.C. Indian scholar Pāṇini referring to the city of Kapiśi, a city of the Kapisa Kingdom, and to Kapiśayana, a famous wine from Kapisa. The city of Kapiśi also appeared as Kaviśiye on Graeco-Indian coins of Apollodotus I and Eucratides. Archeological discoveries in 1939 confirmed that the city of Kapisi was an emporium for Kapiśayana wine, bringing to light numerous glass flasks, fish-shaped wine jars, and drinking cups typical of the wine trade of the era. The grapes and wine of the area are referred to in several works of ancient Indian literature. The epic Mahabharata also mentions the common practice of slavery in the city. According to the scholar Pliny, the city of Kapiśi was destroyed in the sixth century B.C. by the Achaemenid emperor Cyrus. Based on the account of the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang, who visited in 644 A.D., it seems that in later times Kapisa was part of a kingdom ruled by a Buddhist Kshatriya king.

Geography



Map of Kapisa Province



Kapisa province is bordered from the north by Panjsher province, from the east by Laghman province, from the south by Kabul province, and from the southwest by Parwan province. The province covers an area of 1,871 square kilometers. Fifty-four percent is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 43 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demography and Population

Kapisa had an approximate population of 392,900 in 2008. There are 51,730 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. About 99 percent of Kapisa lives in rural districts. Dari is spoken by about 176,000 people and 304 villages representing 30 percent of the population. The second language is Pashtu, spoken by 107,000 people and 168 villages representing 27 percent of the population. A third language spoken by a sizeable portion of the population (17 percent) is Pashaie. Kapisa province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. 29,286 Kuchi stay in Kapisa province in the winter. Five Kapisa communities with a total of 105 households also migrate from Alasayi district of Kapisa province to Dawlat Shah district of Laghman province. The Kuchi population in the summer is 4,610 individuals.

Infrastructure

On average, only 27 percent of households use safe drinking water; 3 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 6 percent of households in Kapisa province have access to electricity, with only 2 percent having access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure in Kapisa is reasonably well developed, with 58 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 31 percent of the province, there are no roads.

Economics

Kapisa is an agricultural province. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in agriculture, livestock, and trade and services. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 62 percent of households. However, 32 percent of households in rural areas derive their incomes from trade and services, and 35 percent of households in rural area earn income through non-farm-related labor. The production of industrial commodities seems to be scarce in this province; cotton, sesame, tobacco, confection, honey, karakul skin, and sugar sweets are the main products. Even though the number of villages producing handicrafts is more than five times the number of villages engaged in industries, overall production remains relatively weak. Three handicrafts stand out - carpets, pottery, and jewelry. Ninety-six percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 7 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, and barley. The most commonly owned livestock are poultry, cattle, oxen, sheep, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Kapisa province is 39 percent; however, while 53 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 23 percent of women. On average, 60 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 112,544 students in the 181 primary, secondary, high schools. Boys accounted for 66 percent of students, and 51 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 3,657 teachers working in the schools; 12 percent were women. The province also has a number of higher education facilities, with one university and a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Kapisa province had 24 health centers and two hospitals with 110 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 34 doctors and 154 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 72 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. A little less than half of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Khost Province

Khost, or Khowst, is located in the southeast region of the country. It used to be part of Paktya province in the past. Its capitol city is Khost, which was the first Afghan city to be liberated from communist rule during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. A U.S.-led PRT is located in the city of Khost.

History

During the Soviet-Afghan war, Khost was the object of a siege that lasted for more than eight years. Soon after the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet troops, Afghan guerillas took control of the only land route between Khost and Gardez, effectively putting a stop to the Soviet advance. Khost has been in U.S.-held territory since 2001.

Geography



Map of Khost Province



Khost province is bordered by Paktya province to its north, Paktika province to its west, and the Pakistani-ruled tribal areas of North Waziristan to its east and south. The province covers an area of 4,029 square kilometers. Fifty-nine percent of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 37 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 13 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Khost had an approximate population of 511,600. There are 87,199 households in the province, and households, on average, have eight members. Ninety-eight percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic group living in the province is Pashtun. This includes major tribes such as Zadran, Mangal, Mandozi, Ismaiel Khil, Tani, Gubuz, Matoon, Lakan, Jaji, Sabari, Alishir Terizi, and Babakker Khil. Pashtu is spoken by 99 percent of the villages. Dari is spoken in two villages of approximatly 1,000 residents. Khost province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. Among the 104,965 Kuchis living in Khost, 75 percent are long-range migratory and 25 percent are settled. Among the long-range migratory Kuchis, generally over 50 percent of the community migrates from a winter to a summer area. An estimated 74,179 individuals migrate across the border in winter, which would raise Khost's Kuchi population to 179,144, making it the province with the second highest Kuchi population in the country (after Nangarhar).

Infrastructure

On average, only 34 percent of households use safe drinking water; 1 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 4 percent have access to electricity, but only half of these have access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure is well developed, with 59 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 3 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, the province has a well-developed network - 74 percent of the community have access to mobile phone coverage, with Roshan and AWCC as the main mobile telephone operators.

Economics

Khost province is both an agricultural and industrial province. In terms of industry, cold drink, soft drink, iodine salt, and plastic factories are working in the province. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 46 percent of households. However, 45 percent of households in rural areas derive their incomes from trade and services, and 24 percent earn income through non-farm-related labor. A variety of industrial crops are produced in Khost to include sugar cane, sesame, and olives. Small industries include honey and silk. Handicrafts, to include carpets, rugs, and jewelry are produced in a number of villages. Sixty-four percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 41 percent have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in the province include wheat, maize, alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, goats, donkeys, and sheep.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Khost province is 28 percent; however, while 44 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 7 percent of women. On average, 38 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 155,570 students in the 216 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 74 percent of students, and 42 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 3,047 teachers working in the schools; 3 percent were women. The province also has a number of higher education facilities, to include a university and a mechanical school.

Health

In 2008, Khost province had 21 health centers and one hospitals with 100 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 98 doctors and 215 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 207 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present.


Back to Provincal Information List



Kunar Province

Kunar, (also known as Konar or Konarha), is located in the eastern part of the country. Its capitol is Asadabad. It is one of the four "N2KL" provinces (Nangarhar province, Nuristan province, Kunar province, and Laghman province). N2KL is the designation used by U.S. and coalition forces in Afghanistan for the rugged and very violent region along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border opposite Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas and North-West Frontier province. Kunar is the center of the N2KL region. A U.S.-led PRT is located in Asadabad.

Geography



Map of Kunar Province



Kunar province borders with Nangarhar province to the south, Nuristan province to the north, Laghman province to the west, and has a border with Pakistan in the east. The province covers an area of 4,339 square kilometers. Eighty-six percent of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 12 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 15 districts.

Demography and Population

Kunar had an approximate population of 401,000 in 2008. There are 64,588 households in the province, and households, on average, have eight members. Ninety-six percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Kunar are Pashtun, Ashkun, Gawar-Bati, Gujari, Pashayi, and Waigali. This includes major tribes such as Safi, Salarzai, Mashwani, Mamon, and Shinwari. Pashtu is spoken by 705 villages out of 771 and more than 90 percent of the population. Dari and Uzbeki are spoken in two villages each, Pashaie is spoken in 15 villages, and Nooristani in 35 villages. Kunar province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 13,200 individuals, or 0.5 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Kunar living in 20 communities. The Kuchi population in the summer is 1,355 individuals.

Infrastructure

On average, only 24 percent of households use safe drinking water; 11 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 41 percent of households have access to electricity, with no public provision of electricity in the province. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 39 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 47 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, AWCC and Roshan mobile company are active throughout the province.

Economics

The majority of commercial activity in Kunar province is related to trade in timber and gem products. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 74 percent of households in the province. However, 33 percent of households derive some income from trade and services, and 28 percent of households earn income through non-farm-related labor. Unlike other agricultural crops, industrial crops are not produced in large quantities. Sugar cane is the most important industrial crop in the province. Small industries are dominated by two commodities - dried sugar and honey. Handicrafts are very scarce; jewelry is the main craft. Eighty-eight percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 31 percent of rural households having access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in the province include wheat and maize. The most commonly owned livestock are poultry, cattle, goats, sheep, and oxen.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Kunar province is 21 percent; however, while 47 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 18 percent of women. On average, 43 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 129,661 students in the 332 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 63 percent of students, and 33 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 3,268 teachers working in the schools; 5 percent were women. In the sector of higher education, there is one vocational school catering only to men.

Health

In 2008, Kunar province had 24 health centers and one hospital with 123 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 38 doctors and 121 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 93 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. A little less than one-quarter of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Kunduz Province

Kunduz, or Konduz, province is centered on the city of Kunduz, its capitol, in northern Afghanistan. The Germans have a PRT in its capitol.

Geography



Map of Kunduz Province



Kunduz province borders on its north with Tajikistan. The province also borders with Baghlan province to its south, Takhar province to its east, Balkh province to its west, and Samangan province to its southwest. The province covers an area of 7,827 square kilometers. More than three-quarters (78.8 percent) of the area is made up of flat land, while about 12 percent is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Kunduz had an approximate population of 882,900. There are 86,756 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Approximately 69 percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups are Pashtun and Tajik, followed by Uzbek, Hazara, and Turkmen. Major tribes include: Tajik, Aimaq, Sujani, Sadaat (hazara), Shikh Ali, Ismailia, Omarkhil, Ibrahimkhil, Amadzaee, Uzbek, Qarluq, Toghli, Arab, Kochi, and Balooch. Pashtu, Dari, and Uzbeki are spoken by 90 percent of the population. A fourth language, Turkmeni, is spoken by 8 percent of the population. Kunduz province has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 88,208 individuals stay in the province. Of these, 52 percent are short-range migratory, and 48 percent are long-range migratory. The Kuchi population in the summer is 45,570 individuals.

Infrastructure

On average, only 25 percent of households use safe drinking water; 18 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. Only 2 percent of households in the urban area have safe toilets; virtually none exist in rural areas. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 68 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 4 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, Roshan, AWCC, and Areeba Digital phone networks are active throughout the province.

Economic

Kunduz province is mainly an agricultural province with fertile lands. The main industry in the province is the manufacture of cotton. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 66 percent of households in the province, including 34 percent of households in the urban area. However, 28 percent of households earn some income from trade and services, and approximately 15 percent of households earn income through non-farm-related labor. Kunduz produces industrial crops to some extent. Besides cotton, the other major product is sesame. The sector of small industries is almost nonexistent in the province, and karakul skin is the primary product. Handicrafts are not produced on a large scale either, but rugs and jewelry are produced to some extent. On average, 85 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 12 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in the province include wheat, rice, watermelons, melons, and maize. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, cattle, poultry, donkeys, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Kunduz province is 33 percent; however, while 40 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 24 percent of women. On average, 62 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 226,975 students in the 380 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 62 percent of students, and 16 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 4,767 teachers working in the schools; 26 percent were women. The province has a university, an agricultural school, and a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Kunduz province had 48 health centers and two hospital with 300 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 75 doctors and 215 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 95 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. More than half of the population (56 percent) has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Laghman Province

Laghman is located in the eastern portion of Afghanistan. The capitol is Mehtar Lam, where a U.S. PRT is located.

History

During the invasions of Alexander the Great, the area was formerly known as Lampaka. Later, during the Mughal era, Laghman was recognized as a dependent district of Kabul province. There are Aramaic inscriptions that were found in Laghman, which indicated an ancient trade route from India to Palmyra.

During the Soviet-Afghan war and the battles that followed between the rivaling warlords, many homes and business establishments in the province were destroyed. In addition, the Soviets employed a "barbarism" strategy that targeted and destroyed the agricultural infrastructure of Laghman.

Geography



Map of Laghman Province



Laghman province is connected to six other provinces. Laghman borders Nangarhar province in the south, Kunar province in the east, Nuristan province in the northeast, Parwan province in the northwest, Kapisa province in the west, and Kabul province in the southwest. The province covers an area of 3,408 square kilometers. More than half of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain (55.4 percent), and approximately 40.9 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into five districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Laghman had an approximate population of 396,000. There are 60,048 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Ninety-nine percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups are Sapi, Tajik, Nasir, Ibrahimkhail, Hoodkhail, Nuristani, Kharoti, Jabarkhail, Pashaie, Niazi, Pashtun, and Gujjars. Pashto is spoken by 345 villages out of 620 and around 58 percent of the population. The second most frequent language is Pashaie spoken in 210 villages by a third of the population. Dari is spoken in 57 villages, representing just over 9 percent of the population. Laghman province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 94,020 individuals, or around 4 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Laghman living in 40 communities. The Kuchi population in the summer is 3,670 individuals.

Infrastructure

On average, 39 percent of households use safe drinking water; 4 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 13 percent of households have access to electricity; however, none of this is public electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 60.7 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 28.3 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, the Roshan, AWCC, and Areeba Digital phone networks cover most of the province.

Economics

Poppy growing is widespread, although the area devoted to the crop varies from place to place. In terms of industry, Laghman province is characterized by the production of fruit, nuts, agriculture, animal husbandry, mining of gems, timber cutting, small shopkeepers, and an ice factory. Non-farm-related labor provides a source of revenue for 39 percent of households, and 36 percent of households derive their income from trade and services. Unlike other provinces, Laghman province houses a relatively large number of villages that grow industrial crops, in particular cotton, sugar, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham. On the other hand, the sector of small industries is very weak with honey and dried sugar in particular. Handicrafts are produced in even smaller numbers and consist of jewelry and rugs. Ninety-three percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 1 percent of have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops produced are wheat and rice. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, poultry, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Laghman province is 14 percent; however, while 22 percent of the men are literate, this is true for just 5 percent of women. On average, around 48 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 122,862 students in the 234 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 63 percent of students, and 43 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 3,327 teachers working in the schools; 6 percent were women. There is one teacher training institute in the province.

Health

In 2008, Laghman province had 24 health centers and one hospital with 100 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 81 doctors and 202 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 156 pharmacies of which 154 are owned privately. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Sixty-three percent of the population has to travel more than 5 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Logar Province

Logar, or Lowgar, is located in the eastern zone, southeast of Kabul, and the geography of the province centers on the large Logar River, which enters the province through the west and leaves to the north. The word Logar is built from two Pashto words: Loy (great) and Ghar (mountain). Its capitol is Pul-i-Alam. A Czech-led PRT is located in Logar.

Geography



Map of Logar Province



Logar province is surrounded by Nangarhar and Kabul provinces in the northeast, Paktya province in the south, and Wardak and Ghazni provinces in the west. The province covers an area of 3,955 square kilometers. More than one-third (37 percent) of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 58 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demography and Population

Logar has an approximate population of 349,000 in 2008. There are 44,209 households in the province, and households, on average, have eight members. Seventy-two percent of the population lives in rural districts. About two-thirds of villages and 60 percent of the population speak Pashto, and one-third of villages and 40 percent of the population speak Dari. Logar province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 96,280 individuals, or 4 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Logar living in 29 communities. During summer, the Kuchi population figures rise to 208,339, which makes Logar the province with the second highest number of Kuchi in the summer after Kabul province.

Infrastructure

In Logar province, on average, 45 percent of households use safe drinking water; and 21 percent of households have access to electricity. Access to electricity is greater in rural areas reaching 28 percent of households, and 10 percent of households have access to public electricity. There is little to no access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 78 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in a small part of the province (5 percent) there are no roads.

Economics

Logar province is an agricultural province, and it is rich with minerals such as copper and chromites. In terms of industry, one textile and one copper factory are working in the province. The majority of commercial activities are related to agriculture, trade and services, and livestock products. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 31 percent of households. However, 30 percent of households in rural areas derive their incomes from trade and services, and 46 percent earn some income through non-farm-related labor. The two major industrial crops are tobacco and sugar extract. Small industries are scarce; honey production is the main industry. A small number of villages produce jewelry, pottery, and carpets. Eighty-four percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land and 6 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, potatoes, alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, cattle, camels, and poultry.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Logar province is 21 percent; however, while 31 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 9 percent of women. On average, 22 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 104,987 students in the 198 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 69 percent of students, and 55 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 2,228 teachers working in schools; 15 percent were women.

Health

In 2008, Logar province had 32 health centers and one hospital with 137 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 48 doctors and 218 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 156 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Most of the population has to travel 5-to-10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Nangarhar Province

Nangarhar is located in the eastern region of the country. Its capitol is the city of Jalalabad. A U.S.-led PRT is located in Jalalabad.

Geography



Map of Nangarhar Province



Nangarhar province borders Kunar and Laghman provinces to the north; Kabul, Logar, and Paktya provinces in the west; and has an international border with Pakistan in the east and south. The province covers an area of 7,616 square kilometers. More than half (54.8 percent) of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 39.5 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 21 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2009, Nangarhar had an approximate population of 1,333,500. There are 182,425 households in the province, and households, on average, have eight members. Eighty-seven percent of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Nangarhar are Pashtuns (90 percent) followed by Pashaie (7 percent) and other ethnic groups such as Tajiks and Gujjars (3 percent). This includes major tribes such as Momand, Shenwari, Khogaini, Sapi, Nasir, Ibrahimkhail, Hoodkhail, Kharoti, Jabarkhail, Nuristani, Pashaie, Niazi, and Tajik. Pashtu is spoken by 92.1 percent of the villages. The remaining 8 percent speak Pashaie (60 villages), Dari (36 villages), and some other unspecified languages. Nangarhar province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 558,627 people, representing 23 percent of the total Kuchi population, stay in Nangarhar living in 151 communities, which makes Nangarhar the province with the highest number of Kuchi in winter. During summer, the Kuchi population in Nangarhar province is 82,817 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Nangarhar province, on average, 43 percent of households use safe drinking water; 19 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. Access to electricity is much greater in the urban area where 83 percent of households have access to electricity; however, this figure falls to just 9 percent in rural areas, with 3 percent having access to public electricity. Around one-third (33 percent) of households in urban areas and only 2 percent of rural households have access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure in Nangarhar is reasonably well developed, with 54 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 12 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, Roshan, Areeba Digital, and AWCC cover many districts of Nangarhar with a network that is being increased constantly.

Economics

Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 48 percent of households in Nangarhar province, including 55 percent of rural households and 12 percent of households in the urban area. However, 58 percent of households in the urban area and 28 percent of households in rural areas derive some income from trade and services. Twenty-seven percent of households in urban areas and 40 percent of households in rural areas earn some income through non-farm-related labor. Industrial crops that produce cotton and sugar are concentrated in certain parts of the province. Small industries are very scarce, and sugar and honey are the primary products. Handicrafts are specialized in jewelry and rugs. Ninety-six percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 4 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, rice, alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, donkeys, goats, and sheep.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Nangarhar province is 29 percent; however, while more than 41 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 15 percent of women. On average, 39 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in schools. In 2008, there were 443,017 students in the 471 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 63 percent of students, and 17 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 8,654 teachers working in the schools; 8 percent were women. Nangarhar province also has a number of higher education facilities, with one university, an agricultural school, and teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Nangarhar province had 83 health centers and six hospitals with 815 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 314 doctors and 897 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 393 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Around a third of the population can access a health unit situated less than 5 kilometers away. People seeking medical attention travel more than 10 kilometers, and because of the nature of the terrain, it may take more time to reach the closest health unit than distances would suggest.


Back to Provincal Information List



Nimroz Province

Nimroz, sometimes spelled Nimruz, is located in the southwest region of the country on the borders of Iran and Pakistan. The name Nimruz means "mid-day" in Persian. Its capitol city is Zaranj. There are no PRTs within the province.

History

The area now composing Nimroz was once part of the historical region of Sistan, which over the centuries was held by powers ranging from the Medean Empire to Alexander the Great, to the Kushan Empire before being conquered and converted to Islam by the Arab Rashidun Caliphate. The area later came under the Saffarid dynasty (861-1003 A.D.), one of the first Iranian dynasties of the Islamic era. Under the modern Afghan governments, the province was known as Chakhansur province until 1968, when it became Nimroz province.

Geography



Map of Nimroz Province



Nimroz shares borders with two other provinces - Helmand to the east and Farah to the north - and two foreign countries - Pakistan to the south and Iran to the west. The province covers an area of 41,356 square kilometers. Nearly the entire province (95.3 percent) is made up of flat land. A substantial part of the province is the desert area of Dashti Margo. The province is divided into five districts.

Demography and Population

Nimroz had an approximate population of 139,900 in 2008 and is the most sparsely populated province in the country. There are 13,940 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around four-fifths of the population (85 percent) lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Nimroz province are Baluchi and Pashtun, followed by Tajiks and Uzbeks. Baluchi is spoken by 61 percent of the population. The second most frequent language is Pashtu, spoken by 27 percent of the population, followed by Dari and Uzbeki each spoken by 10 percent of the population. The province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. About 29,500 Kuchi stay in Nimroz. All of these are short-range, and migratory, and the population of Kuchi in summer is therefore the same as in winter.

Infrastructure

In Nimroz province, on average, only 38 percent of households use safe drinking water; 15 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 32 percent of households have access to electricity, with the great majority of homes relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 60.8 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 7.1 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, public phones service about 5 percent of the population. No clear statistics are available on mobile telephone network coverage.

Economic

Nimroz is both an agricultural and industrial province. In terms of industry, people are engaged in handicrafts producing carpets, embroidery, pottery, and jewelry. The majority of commercial activity is related to trades and services, livestock products, and fruits including melons, watermelons, and grapes. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for only 14 percent of households. However, 32 percent of households derive their incomes from trade and services, and 17 percent of households earn some income through non-farm-related labor. There is not a very large production of industrial crops in Nimroz - one area grows onions and another grows potatoes. Almost all (97 percent) of households in the province have access to irrigated land, whereas due to its geographical location, the province has no access to rain-fed lands. The most important field crops grown beyond those already mentioned include alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are poultry, goats, sheep, and donkeys.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Nimroz province is 22 percent; however, while 30 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 11 percent of women. On average, 33 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 38,293 students in the 85 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 59 percent of students and 27 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 795 teachers working in the schools; 48 percent were women. Although there is currently no governmental or private university in the province, there is a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Nimroz province had five health centers and two hospitals with 50 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 25 doctors and 38 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. In 2004, the province had 30 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Two-thirds (67.5 percent) of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Nuristan Province

Nuristan (also spelled Nurestan or Nooristan) is a region in Afghanistan embedded in the south of the Hindu Kush valleys. Its administrative center is Parun. It was formed in 1989 and officially established in 2001 from the northern parts of Laghman province and Kunar province. Before 2001, its capitol was situated in Laghman province due to Mujahedeen control over Nuristan province. The U.S. has a PRT within the province.

History

Until the 1890s, the region was known as Kafiristan (Persian for "land of the non-believers") because of its inhabitants, the Nuristani, an ethnically distinctive people who practiced animism, polytheism, and shamanism. The region was conquered by Emir Abdur Rahman Khan in 1895-96 and the Nuristani were then converted to Islam. The region was renamed Nuristan, meaning "land of the enlightened," a reflection of the "enlightening" of the pagan Nuristani by the "light-giving" of Islam.

Geography



Map of Nuristan Province



Nuristan is one of the most impassable regions of eastern Afghanistan, lost among the steep spurs of the eastern Hindu Kush. It is almost locked by sheer cliffs, and only in the extreme south and southeast, the mountainous terrain goes down towards the Kabul River basin. It is bordered on the north by Badakhsan province, Panjshir province to the west, Laghman and Kunar provinces to the south, and Pakistan to the east. The province covers an area of 9,942 square kilometers. Nearly the entire province (99 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 1.1 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into eight districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Nuristan had an approximate population of 131,900. There are 19,788 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. The entire population lives in rural areas. The major ethnic groups living in the province - are Kats, Kunish, Pashayi, Wama, and Paroni, collectively called Nuristanis - make up 99 percent of the population. These groups are split into six individual tribes: Katta tribe is the largest (38 percent) and mostly resides in Waigal, Wamma, and Do Aab; Kalsha tribe (30 percent), residing throughout Nuristan, is the next largest; Ashkori or Wamayee tribe (12 percent) resides mostly in Wama; Kam tribe (10 percent) resides mainly in Kamdesh, Barg-e-Matal, Kantewa and Mandol; Satra tribe (5 percent) resides throughout the province; and Parsoon tribe (4 percent) also resides throughout the province. Nuristani is spoken by 78 percent of the population and 84 percent of the villages. The second most common language is Pashayi, spoken by the majorities in 39 villages representing 15 percent of the population. Nuristan province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 3,160 individuals, or 0.1 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Nuristan. In summer, the Kuchi population in Nuristan rises to 4,777, with some Kuchi migrating from Laghman province into Do Aab and Kamdesh districts.

Infrastructure

In Nuristan province, on average, only 2 percent of households use safe drinking water; 62 percent of households in have access to electricity, however, there is no public electricity provision. There is little to no access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure in Nuristan is not very well developed. Only 10 percent of roads in the province are able to take car traffic in all seasons. In 73 percent of the province there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, only an Afghan-Indian joint digital company is active in Paroon.

Economics

Today, like centuries ago, the main occupations of the Nuristanis are agriculture and sheep and cattle breeding. The majority of commercial activity in Nuristan province is related to trade in agriculture, timber, gems, drugs, and weaponry. Agriculture and livestock represent sources of income for 88 percent of households. Fourteen percent earn some income through non-farm-related labor. There is very little production of industrial commodities such as cotton, sugar, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham. The sector of small industries is dominated by one commodity - honey. Handicrafts are predominately rugs. On average, 97 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 3 percent have access to rain-fed land. The major crops grown in Nuristan province are maize, wheat, millet, and pulses. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, goats, and donkeys.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Nuristan province is 25 percent; however, while 31 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 19 percent of women. On average, 47 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 35,401 students in the 221 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 59 percent of students, and 34 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 1,185 teachers working in the schools; 9 percent were women.

Health

In 2008, Nuristan province had 14 health centers and no hospitals with 30 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 24 doctors and 80 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Most of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Paktika Province

Paktika is located in the southeast region of the country. Its capitol is Sharan, where a U.S.-led PRT is located.

History

Paktika was once part of a greater province, Paktya, which has itself now further split into Khost province. The province was the site of many battles during the Soviet occupation of the country and the lawless years that followed.

Geography



Map of Paktika Province



Paktika province is surrounded by Paktya, Khost, and Ghazni provinces in the north; Zabul province in the west; and has an international border with Pakistan. The province covers an area of 19,336 square kilometers. Half of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 41 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 19 districts.

Demography and Population

Paktika had an approximate population of 287,300 in 2008. There are 115,075 households in the province, and households, on average, have eight members. Approximately 99 percent of the population live in rural districts, while 1 percent lives in urban areas. Pashtu is spoken by more than 96 percent of the population. Five villages with a total population of about 15,000 speak Uzbeki, and another four villages with a total population of about 5,000 people speak other languages. Paktika province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 51,074 individuals stay in Paktika. Of the Kuchi that are in Paktika during winter, only 50 households are settled and the remaining 99 percent are short-range migratory. However, most of this group is only partially migratory. On average, 26 percent of the community does not migrate. Both in their summer area and in their winter area, they remain stable in one location during that season. The Kuchi population in the summer is 6,117 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Paktika province, on average 28 percent of households use safe drinking water; 6 percent of households have access to electricity, with only 1 percent of the population having access to public electricity. Almost no households have access to safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 33 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in about 4 percent of the province there are no roads.

Economics

Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 65 percent of households in Paktika province. However, 48 percent of households in rural areas derive their income from non-farm-related labor. Unlike agricultural products, there is not a very large production of industrial products; tobacco and sugar extracts are the major products. Small industries are very scarce in the province; honey is the main commodity. Handicrafts are more common than small industries, but they are still very scarce. Jewelry and rugs are the most prevalent. Almost all households in the province (96 percent) have access to irrigated land, and 4 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown in the province include wheat, barley, maize, alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, sheep, donkeys, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Paktika province is extremely low at just 2 percent. While 4 percent of men are literate, the average literacy rate for women is zero. On average, 9 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 111,869 students in the 311 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 77 percent of students, and 50 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 5,630 teachers working in the schools; 2 percent were women.

Health

In 2008, Paktika province had 22 health centers and three hospitals with 90 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 37 doctors and 99 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 193 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Most of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center. Because of the nature of the terrain, travel over even short distances can be difficult and time consuming.


Back to Provincal Information List



Paktya Province

Paktya, or Paktia, is located in the southeastern part of the country. A U.S.-led PRT is located in the provincial capitol of Gardez.

History

Paktya used to be a unified province with Khost and Paktika. These three provinces are now referred to as Loya Paktya, meaning "Greater Paktya." Paktya came to prominence during the 1980s, when a significant portion of Afghanistan's leadership originated from the province. Some of the more notable leaders include: Najibullah Ahmadzai, Mohammad Aslam Watanjar, Shahnawaz Tanai, and Sayed Mohammad Gulabzoi. More recently, Paktya was the site of heavy fighting between Taliban and NATO forces following the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. Paktya was one of the last redoubts of organized Taliban resistance; much of Operation Anaconda took place in Zormat, one of Paktya's larger districts.

Geography



Map of Paktya Province



Paktya province has borders with Logar province in the north, Ghazni province in the west, Paktika province and Khost province in the south, and Pakistan to the east. The province covers an area of 6,259 square kilometers. Around two-quarters of the province (65.1 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 32.3 percent of the area is made up of flat lands. The province is divided to 11 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Paktya had an approximate population of 490,900. There are approximately 71,317 households in the province, and households on average have eight members. Almost all (96 percent) of the population lives in rural districts. Pashtu is spoken by 97 percent of the population, Dari is spoken by 21,000 individuals, and around 1,000 individuals speak other languages. Paktya province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 9,588 individuals and in spring 4,226 individuals of the Kuchi population stay in Paktya.

Infrastructure

In Paktya province, on average, only 30 percent of households use safe drinking water; 3 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; 16 percent of households have access to electricity, with only 1 percent having access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure is well developed, with nearly two-thirds (64.2 percent) of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 3 percent of the province there are no roads.

Economics

Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 59 percent of households in Paktya province, including 61 percent of rural households. In addition, half of households in rural areas derive their incomes from non-farm-related labor, and 20 percent gain income from trade and services. Unlike agricultural or animal products, there is not a very large production of industrial crops; cotton, sugar, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham are the mainstays. The handicraft sector is very small in the province; honey, jewelry, and carpet are the main products. Nearly all households in the province (94 percent) have access to irrigated land, and 30 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, potatoes, alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, donkeys, cattle, and camels.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Paktya province is 35 percent; however, while 42 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 26 percent of women. On average, 65 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 116,493 students in the 247 primary, secondary, and high schools. Boys accounted for 77 percent of students, and 38 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 2,617 teachers working in schools; 5 percent were women. There is one university and a teacher training institute in the province.

Health

In 2008, Paktya province had 25 health centers and three hospitals with 100 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 116 doctors and 222 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 363 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Most of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Panjshir Province

Panjshir, or Panjsher (literally "Five Lions" in Persian), is in east central Afghanistan. Containing the Panjshir Valley, it was established from the Parwan province on 13 April 2004. Its capitol is the town of Bazarak. A U.S.-led PRT is based in the province.

Geography



Map of Panjshir Province



Panjshir is surrounded by Nuristan province in the east, Kapisa province in the south, Parwan province in the west, Baghlan province in the northwest, Takhar province in the north, and Badakhshan province in the northeast. Panjshir province covers an area of 3,531 square kilometers. Nearly the entire province (91.2 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and only 4.4 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demographics and Population

Panjshir had an approximate population of 136,700 in 2008. There are 17,158 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. The entire population lives in rural areas. The major ethnic group living in Panjshir are the Tajiks, along with a very small population of Pashtun Kuchis.

Infrastructure

In Panjshir province, on average, only 16 percent of households use safe drinking water; 1 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 16 percent of households in have access to electricity, with about 3 percent of these relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure is not well developed, with 32.9 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 45.5 percent of the province there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, mobile telephone operators Roshan, AWCC, Areeba Digital, and Afghan Telecom are present in the province, with Afghan Telecom operating in all administrations of the government at the provincial and district levels.

Economics

Panjshir is an agricultural province, and it is rich with minerals such as rubies, emeralds, and sapphires. The majority of commercial activity is related to agricultural products. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 38 percent of households. More than half of households in the province (51 percent) derive their incomes from non-farm-related labor, and 29 percent of households earn incomes from trade and services. For all practical purposes, the production of industrial commodities are absent in Panjshir. Sesame, tobacco, olives, honey, karakul, dried sugar, confection, and sugar candy are produced throughout the province. Handicrafts are produced mainly in Paryan district, with the majority of the households specializing in rugs and jewelry. Animal products are largely produced throughout the province, wool being the prime product. On average, 94 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 5 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, barley, and potatoes. The most commonly owned livestock are horses, cattle, poultry, sheep, and goats.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Panjshir province is 33 percent; however, while 43 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 20 percent of women. On average, 42 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 32,365 students in the 100 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 63 percent of students, and 34 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 878 teachers working in schools; 19 percent were women.

Health

In 2008, Panjshir province had 12 health centers and one hospital with 100 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 23 doctors and 58 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. One-quarter (26 percent) of the population lives within 5 kilometers from a health center, 20 percent of the population lives within 5 kilometers of a dispensary. Another quarter of the population (26.5 percent) travels more than 10 kilometers to reach a health center or a dispensary (24 percent).


Back to Provincal Information List



Parwan Province

Parwan, also spelled Parvan, once also the name of an ancient town in the Hindu Kush Mountains, is today an administrative province in central Afghanistan. Its capitol is Charikar. The Republic of Korea leads a PRT within the province.

History

In 329 B.C., Alexander the Great founded the settlement of Parwan as his Alexandria of the Caucasus. It was conquered by the Arabs in 792. In 1221, the town was the site of the battle between the invading Mongols and the Khwarezmian Empire, where the Mongols were defeated. In 1840, Parwan was also the site of a major battle in the First Anglo-Afghan War, where the invading British were defeated. Parwan's modern history began with the construction of a new textile factory in the town of Jabal Saraj in 1937. Since then, Parwan was involved in the Soviet war in Afghanistan as some of the fiercest fighting took place in the area. In the 1990s it was the site of heavy resistance against the Taliban.

Geography



Map of Parwan Province



Parwan province is surrounded by Bamyan province to the west, Wardak province to the west and southwest, Kabul province to the south, Kapisa and Panjshir provinces to the east, and Baghlan province to the north. The province covers an area of 5,868 square kilometers. Nearly two-thirds (60 percent) of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 26 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 10 districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Parwan had an approximate population of 589,700. There were 65,577 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around three-quarters (73 percent) of the population lives in rural districts. Dari and Pashto are the main languages spoken in the province; however, Dari speakers outnumber Pashto speakers by a ratio of 5-to-2. Parwan province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 30,290 Kuchis live in Parwan province, of which 66 percent are short-range migratory and the remaining 34 percent are long-range migratory. During the summer, Kuchi migrate to Parwan from Laghman, Kapisa, Baghlan, and, to a lesser extent, from Kabul, Nangarhar, and Kunar. The Kuchi population in the summer is 121,517 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Parwan province, on average, 32 percent of households use safe drinking water; 1 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; and 22 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these (16 percent) relying on public electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 61 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 18 percent of the province there are no roads.

Economics

Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 39 percent of households in Parwan province, including 43 percent of rural households. However, 30 percent of households in rural areas derive some income from trade and services. Around half of households in rural areas earn income through non-farm-related labor. Many industrial crops are produced in the province, with the most frequent being cotton and tobacco. The production of herbs is also an economic activity in Parwan. The most prevalent herbs produced in the province are chicory, licorice, aniseed, hyssop, caray, zerk, and asfitida. Small industries are very scarce but produce honey, silk, karakul skin, dried sugar, and sugar candy. The most prevalent handicrafts are carpets, rugs, jewelry, and shawls. Sixty-two percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and around 6 percent have access to rain-fed land. The most common crops grown in garden plots include fruit and nut trees, grapes, potatoes, beans, flax, alfalfa, clover, and other fodder. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, cattle, goats, and donkeys.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Parwan province is 37 percent; however, while 51 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 20 percent of women. On average, 42 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 164,446 students in the 372 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 66 percent of students, and 34 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 5,687 teachers working in the schools; 13 percent were women. There is one university, an agricultural school (men only), and a teacher training institute (men only).

Health

In 2008, Parwan province had 42 health centers and two hospitals with 80 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 54 doctors and 111 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 190 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. One-third of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Samangan Province

Samangan is located in northern Afghanistan. Its capitol city is Aibek. Afghanistan has various archeological sites where caves were hewn out of rocks and inhabited by Buddhists. Archaeologists are desperate to work in this province, as wars have destroyed many of these artifacts. The capitol is known for its ancient ruins including, most notably, the Takht e Rostam. There is no PRT located within the province.

Geography



Map of Samangan Province



Samangan province borders Baghlan province in the east, Bamyan province in the south, Sari Pul province in the southwest, and Balkh province in the west and north. The province covers an area of 11,218 square kilometers. Four-fifths (80 percent) of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain (80 percent), and 12 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Samangan had an approximate population of 344,400. There are 47,799 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around 93 percent of the population lives in rural districts, with about 51 percent of the population being male. The major ethnic groups living in the province are Uzbek and Tajiks, followed by Pashtuns, Hazaras, Arabs, and Tatars. Dari is spoken by more than 72.5 percent of the population. The second most frequent language is Uzbeki, spoken by 22.1 percent of the population. Samangan province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 14,150 individuals stay in the province, all of whom are currently settled. A few communities with approximately 350 households migrate into the province in the summer, which almost doubles the number of Kuchis in the province to 26,610.

Infrastructure

In Samangan province, on average, only 7 percent of households use safe drinking water; 5 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. There are virtually no safe toilet facilities. The transport infrastructure in Samangan is not very well developed, with 28 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 28 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, both the main mobile telephone operators, Roshan and AWCC, are present in the province.

Economics

The majority of commercial activity in Samangan province is related to trade in agricultural and animal husbandry. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 36 percent of households. However, 28 percent of households earn some income through non-farm-related labor. Trade and services also account for income for 17 percent of households. Industrial crops are grown in comparatively few locations within the province, with the majority producing sesame, cotton, and tobacco. For all practical purposes, the sector of small industries is nonexistent in Samangan, with the primary product being karakul skin. Handicrafts are more prevalent. Rugs, shawls, jewelry, and carpets are produced throughout the province. Forty-three percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 85 percent of households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, barley, potatoes, and flax. The most commonly owned livestock are donkeys, goats, cattle, and sheep.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Samangan province is 19 percent; however, while 28 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 10 percent of women. Just over one-third (37 percent) of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 80,088 students in the 218 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 67 percent of students, and 39 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 2,020 teachers working in the schools; 21 percent were women. There is one government university within the province.

Health

In 2008, Samangan province had 19 health centers and two hospitals with 85 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 41 doctors and 121 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 24 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Sixty-eight percent of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Sari Pul Province

Sari Pul (also spelled Sar-e Pol, Sar-e-Pol, Sar-i-Pul, or Sar-e-Pul) is located in the northern region of the country. Its capitol is the city of Sari Pul. There is no PRT operating within this province.

Geography



Map of Sari Pul Province



Sari Pul province borders Jawzjan province in the north, Balkh province in the northeast, Samangan province in the southeast, Bamyan and Ghor provinces in the south, and Faryab province in the west. The province covers an area of 16,360 square kilometers. Seventy-five percent of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 14 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into seven districts.

Demography and Population

Sari Pul had an approximate population of 496,900 in 2008. There are 73,266 households in the province, and households, on average, have seven members. Around three-quarters (74 percent) of the population lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups are Uzbek, Pashtun, and Hazara, followed by Arab and Tajik. The major tribe is Uzbek in all districts. Dari is the most dominant language in the province. It is spoken by 56 percent of the population. The second most frequent language is Uzbeki, spoken by 19 percent of the population. Sari Pul province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 59,843 individuals stay in the province; 57 percent of these are short-range, partially migratory; 2 percent are long-range, partially migratory; and 40 percent are settled, partially migratory. During both the winter and the summer, they still migrate in search of good pastures within their respective summer and winter areas. The Kuchi population in the summer increases slightly to 60,292 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Sari Pul province, on average, 45 percent of households use safe drinking water; 20 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; 6 percent of households have access to electricity, and only half of these have access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure in Sari Pul is not well developed with only 12 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. In 21 percent of the province, there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, both the main mobile telephone operators, Roshan and AWCC, are present in the province.

Economic

In terms of industry, there is some natural gas extraction and a number of small businesses working in the Sari Pul province. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 75 percent of households. However, 13 percent of households derive some income from trade and services, and 45 percent earn income through non-farm-related labor. Industrial commodities including sesame, tobacco, and cotton are produced. The sector of small industries is almost nonexistent in Sari Pul, with the exception of karakul skin and silk. The sector of handicrafts is dominated by rugs but also includes jewelry, shawls, and carpets. On average, 17 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 90 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, alfalfa, barley, and flax. The most commonly owned livestock are donkeys, goats, sheep, cattle, and oxen.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Sari Pul province is 12 percent; however, while 18 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 6 percent women. On average, 29 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 113,834 students in the 323 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 64 percent of students, and 37 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 3,183 teachers working in the schools; 25 percent were women. There are no private or government universities in the province.

Health

In 2008, Sari Pul province had 25 health centers and two hospitals with 120 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 53 doctors and 155 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 48 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Most of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Takhar Province

Takhar is located in the northeast part of Afghanistan. It was established in 1964 when Qataghan province was divided into three provinces: Baghlan, Kunduz, and Takhar. Its capitol is Taloqan. There are no PRTs in the province.

Geography



Map of Takhal Province



Takhar province is surrounded by Badakhshan province on the east, Panjshir province to the south, and Kunduz and Baghlan provinces to the west. The northern part of the province borders with Tajikistan. The province covers an area of 12,376 square kilometers. More than half of the province (56.8 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 36.7 percent is made up of flat land. The province consists of 17 districts, including the provincial capitol.

Demography and Population

The population of the Takhar province in 2008 was approximated at 870,900. There are 121,276 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around 86 percent of the population of Takhar lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Takhar province are Uzbek and Tajiks, followed by Pashtuns and Hazaras. Takhar province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 172,530 individuals stay in Takhar, with more than a third of these being short-range, partially migratory and the rest long-range partially migratory. The Kuchi population in the summer diminishes to 59,430 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Takhar province, on average, only 29 percent of households use safe drinking water; 1 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; 5 percent of households have access to electricity, with only 3 percent of households in urban areas and none in rural areas having access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure in Takhar is reasonably well developed, with 43.1 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 26.1 percent of the province, there are no roads. Roshan, AWCC, Afghan Telecom, Areeba Digital telecommunications companies operate in most districts of the province.

Economic

Takhar is an agricultural province and is rich with minerals like lapis lazuli, gems, and coal. In terms of industry, one textile and one cement factory are working in the province. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in agricultural and livestock products. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 60 percent of households in Takhar province. However, 23 percent of households derive some income from trade and services. Additionally, more than a third of households (38 percent) earn income through non-farm-related labor. On average, 48 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 65 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, barley, rice, and flax. The most commonly owned livestock are donkeys, cattle, goats, poultry, and oxen.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Takhar province is 16 percent; however, while 21 percent of men are literate, this is true for just 10 percent of women. On average, 32 percent of children between the ages of 6 and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 245,377 students in the 375 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 59 percent of students, and 15 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 6,244 teachers working in the schools; 21 percent were women. The province has one university and a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2005, Takhar province had 50 health centers and four hospitals with 180 beds. Data from 2005 also showed there were 111 doctors and 453 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 71 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present.


Back to Provincal Information List



Uruzgan Province

Uruzgan (also spelled Oruzgan, Urozgan, or Rozgan) is located in the south central area of the country, though the area is culturally and tribally linked to Kandahar in the south. On 28 March 2004, the new Daykundi province was carved out of an area in the north, leaving Oruzgan with a majority Pashtun population and Daykundi with a majority of Hazaras. Its capitol is Tarin Kowt, also spelled Tirin Kot. A Dutch-led PRT is in the province but in the near future will become a U.S.-led PRT.

Geography



Map of Uruzgan Province



Uruzgan province borders with Zabul and Kandahar provinces in the south, Helmand province in the east, Daykundi province in the north, and Ghazni province in the west. The province covers an area of 12,640 square kilometers. Around three-quarters of the province (72 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and 21 percent of the area is made up of flat land. The province is divided into five districts.

Demography and Population

In 2008, Uruzgan had an approximate population of 311,900. There are approximately 44,896 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Most of the population (97 percent) lives in rural districts. Pashtu is spoken by 90 percent of the population and 90 percent of the villages. The second most frequent language is Dari, spoken by the majorities in 46 villages and approximately 19,000 people. Uruzgan province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 37,115 individuals, or 1.5 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Uruzgan. Of these, 74 percent are short-range migratory and 26 percent are long-range migratory. Almost all of these Kuchis are in fact partially migratory, with, on average, 25 percent of the households staying behind in the winter areas when the others migrate. The summer areas for the short-range migratory Kuchis are Chora and Khas Uruzgan districts of Uruzgan province. In the spring, some 1,400 Kuchi households migrate into Uruzgan province (Khas Uruzgan and Tirin Kot districts) from Kandahar. The Kuchi population in the summer is 39,480 individuals.

Infrastructure

In Uruzgan province, on average, only 8 to 9 percent of households use safe drinking water; 3 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; 8 percent of households have access to electricity, but only 1 percent have access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure is well developed, with 61 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 5 percent of the province, there are no roads.

Economics

Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 40 percent of households in Uruzgan province, including 42 percent of rural households. In addition, a further 37 percent of households in the rural area derive some income from livestock. Around 16 percent of households in rural areas earn income through non-farm-related labor. The production of industrial commodities is small. Cotton, sugar, sesame, tobacco, olives, and sharsham are produced. Small industries are also very scarce in the province. Honey, silk, karakul skin, dried sugar, and sugar candy are the main products. Handicrafts are produced in all districts - primarily rugs, jewelry, and shawls. On average, 69 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 14 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, rapeseeds, flax, and opium. The most commonly owned livestock are cattle, sheep, goats, and donkeys.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Uruzgan province is 5 percent; however, while 10 percent of men are literate, the literacy rate of women is recorded at zero. On average, 1 percent of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 58,838 students in the 200 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 90 percent, of students and 86 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 1,543 teachers working in the schools; 4 percent were women. Regarding higher education, the province has an agricultural school with an all-male student body.

Health

In 2005, Uruzgan province had 10 health centers and one hospital with 40 beds. Data from 2005 also showed there were 27 doctors and 36 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 55 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Seventy-five percent of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center. Given the nature of the terrain, travel times can be lengthy to cover even relatively short distances.


Back to Provincal Information List



Wardak Province

Wardak province (also spelled Wardag or Vardak), or Maidan (Maydan), is located in the central region of Afghanistan. The capitol city of the province is Maidan Shar. A Turkish-led PRT is in the province.

History

During the communist times, the people of Wardak never gave significant support to the communist government. The province was significant during the civil war in Afghanistan due to its proximity to Kabul and its agricultural lands. Most of the area was captured by the Taliban in the winter of 1995, and after the capture of Kabul, the Wardak Taliban were significant in the fight for Parwan province and Kapisa. After the fall of the Taliban in 2001, the area enjoyed relative peace. By 2009, the government's ability to control the vital highway out of Kabul was called into question and much of the province was again in Taliban control.

Geography



Map of Wardak Province



Wardak province is situated on the southern outcrops of the Hindu-Kush mountain range. It borders with Parwan and Bamyan provinces to the north, Kabul and Logar province in the east, and Ghazni province to the south and west. The province covers an area of 9,023 square kilometers. More than four-fifths of the province (84.1 percent) is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain, and a little more than one-tenth of the area (11.4 percent) is made up of flat land. The province is divided into eight districts.

Demography and Population

In 2009, Wardak had an approximate population of 531,200. There are around 83,984 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Nearly all of the population (99 percent) lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Wardak province are Pashtuns, followed by Tajiks and Hazaras. The most frequently spoken languages are Pashtu, which is spoken by 70 percent of the population and Dari, which is spoken by 27 percent. Wardak province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. During the winter, approximately 10,670 individuals, 0.4 percent of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Wardak. The vast majority (89 percent) of these are settled. The summer area for the long range migratory Kuchis from Wardak is Kabul province, while long-range migratory Kuchis from the provinces of Nangarhar, Logar, and Laghman, and to a lesser extent Kabul, Khost, Kunar, and Parwan move to Wardak in the summer, mostly the districts of Bihsud and Jalrez. The Kuchi population in the summer is 122,810 individuals, 5.1 percent of the total Kuchi population.

Infrastructure

In Wardak province, on average, only 22 percent of households use safe drinking water; 4 percent of households have access to safe toilet facilities; 9 percent of households province have access to electricity, but only 1 percent of households have access to public electricity. The transport infrastructure is quite well developed, with 27 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, 16 percent of the province has no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, there is a partial coverage from AWCC and Roshan mobile networks.

Economics

Wardak province is both an agricultural and an industrial province, and minerals such as gems and marble are found in the mountains of the provincial center, although the government has banned the extraction of these resources. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in agricultural and livestock products, although stone quarrying is also a growing business in the area. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 43 percent of households. However, 24 percent of households in the province derive their incomes from trade and services, and 45 percent of households earn some income through non-farm-related labor. Unlike agricultural or animal products, there is not a very large production of industrial products in tobacco and sugar extracts. The sector of small industries is dominated by one commodity - honey. There is also a significant production of handicrafts mostly related to rugs, carpets, jewelry, and shawls. Eighty-three percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and around 18 percent have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, barley, maize, rice, and rapeseed. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, goats, donkeys, poultry, and cattle.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Wardak province is 25 percent; however, while 38 percent of men are literate (38 percent), this is true for just 10 percent of women. On average, around a third (31 percent) of children between six and 13 are enrolled in school. In 2008, there were 124,921 students in the 305 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 75 percent of students and 29 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 3,186 teachers working in the schools; 5 percent were women. There is a teacher training institute.

Health

In 2008, Wardak province had 35 health centers and four hospitals with 181 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 62 doctors and 364 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 100 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. One-third of the population (29 percent) has to travel more than 5 kilometers to reach their closest health center.


Back to Provincal Information List



Zabul Province

Zabul, or Zabol, is a historic province in south-central Afghanistan. Zabul became an independent province from neighboring Kandahar in 1963, with Qalat being named the provincial capitol. There is a U.S.-led PRT in its capitol.

Geography



Map of Zabul Province



Zabul borders Uruzgan province in the north, Kandahar province in the west, Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the east, and shares an international border with Pakistan in the south. The province covers an area of 17,293 square kilometers. Two-fifths of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain (41 percent), and more 28 percent is made up of flat land. The province is divided into 11 districts.

Demography and Population

Zabul had an approximate population of 270,600 in 2008. There are 34,259 households in the province, and households, on average, have six members. Around 96 percent of the population of Zabul lives in rural districts. The major ethnic groups living in Zabul province are Tohki, Hotak, Suliman Kheyl, Khaker, Popalzai, Naser, Shamulzai, Ludin, and Kuchi. Pashto is spoken by four persons out of five. The second most frequent language is Dari. Zabul province also has a population of Kuchis (nomads), whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter, 53,030 Kuchi stay in Zabul province. Eighty percent of these Kuchi are short-range migratory and 20 percent are long-range migratory. All are, in fact, only partially migratory, and an average of 30 percent of these households remain behind in their winter area during the summer. The Kuchi population in the summer is 46,022 individuals.

Infrastructure

Around nine-tenths (87 percent) of households in Zabul province have direct access to their main source of drinking water within their community; 83 percent have a traditional covered latrine, with none having an improved or flush latrine; 2 percent of households have access to electricity, with the majority of these relying on public electricity. In rural areas, only 1 percent of households have access to electricity. The transport infrastructure is reasonably well developed, with 39 percent of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons. However, in 5 percent of the province there are no roads. As far as telecommunications are concerned, Roshan and AWCC mobile networks are active with patchy, but improving, coverage.

Economics

Zabul is an agricultural province. The majority of commercial activity is related to trade in agricultural products and animal husbandry and transport companies for import/export. Trafficking of narcotics also plays a significant role in the economy in the province. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 50 percent of households, including 52 percent of rural households. Thirty-seven percent of households earn some income through non-farm-related labor. The major industrial crops grown are tobacco, sesame, and sugar extracts. The sector of small industries is practically nonexistent. Handicrafts also are scarce; rugs, jewelry, and shawls are the major crafts. On average, 85 percent of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 18 percent of rural households have access to rain-fed land. The most important field crops grown include wheat, maize, and potatoes. The most commonly owned livestock are sheep, goats, donkeys, cattle, and camels.

Education

The overall literacy rate in Zabul province is 1 percent, which comprises 1 percent of men and a small number of women. Very few children between six and 13 are enrolled in school - on average, 0.1 percent of children, including 0.2 percent for boys. In 2008, there were 53,483 students in the 172 primary, secondary, and high schools in the province. Boys accounted for 89 percent of students and 87 percent of schools were boys' schools. There were 812 teachers working in the schools; 7 percent were women.

Health

In 2008, Zabul province had 14 health centers and two hospitals with 90 beds. Data from 2008 also showed there were 28 doctors and 63 other health professionals employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province. The province has 62 pharmacies. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present. Sixty percent of the population has to travel more than 10 kilometers to reach their closest health center. Given the nature of the terrain, travel times can be lengthy to cover even relatively short distances.



Endnotes

1. Except as noted from "South Asia: Afghanistan" CIA World Factbook, "https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html", 29 July 2010.

2. "The Embassy of Afghanistan-Afghanistan in Brief." "http://www.embassyofafghanistan.org/brief.html", 12 August 2010.

3. CIA World Factbook, "http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html", 12 August 2010.

4. Data compilation from the Provincial Development Plans from the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, "http://www.mrrd.gov.af/nabdp/Provincial percent20Profiles/", 2 August 2010.

5. Data compilation from the Provincial Development Plans from the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, "http://www.mrrd.gov.af/nabdp/Provincial percent20Profiles/", 2 August 2010.

6. Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook, 2008-09, page 146.

7. Except as noted, from Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook, 2008-09 pp. 38-90.

8. "South Asia: Afghanistan" CIA World Factbook, "https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html", 29 July 2010.

9. Data compilation from the Provincial Development Plans fFrom the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, "http://www.mrrd.gov.af/nabdp/Provincial percent20Profiles/", 2 August 2010.

10. Except where annotated information derived from multiple sources: The Provincial Development Plans from the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, "http://www.mrrd.gov.af/nabdp/Provincial percent20Development percent20Plan.htm", downloaded 2 August 2010 with updates from the Statistical Yearbook 2008-09, "http://cso.gov.af/syb.zip", downloaded 2 August 2010.

11. "Afghanistan still the largest producer of opium: U.N. report." Zee News. Archived by Wikipedia from the original on 2010-02-03.


 

 
          |   Privacy and Security Notice   |     |   Accessibility Help   |   External Link Disclaimer   |   No Fear Act   |
 
|   U.S. Army   |   Tradoc   TRADOC   |   iSALUTE   | Ft. Leavenworth   |   Site Map   |   FOIA   |   USA.GOV   |   This is an official U.S. Army Site   |